Bruner’s Theory Of Scaffolding Essay

2.3 Formative Assessment; The Questioning strand

Bruner (1960) introduced the theory of ‘scaffolding’; in that children build upon information they have already mastered. In 1966 he stated there were three phases of learning: enactive, using concrete equipment to aid learning, iconic – using pictoral representations and symbolic using abstract representations and language. He suggested that the three phases were integrated not discrete stages. These phases are extremely apparent in the progression of children through the mathematics curriculum. From this, his spiral curriculum theory in which he stated; `We begin with the hypothesis that any subject can be taught in some intellectually honest form to any child at any stage of development.`…

Vygotsky concerned himself with the social setting around children and how this contributes to the learning of children, Piaget failed to mention this in his theory. Piaget’s data are renound for their unreliability. Firstly he collected the data alone, without any help and the number of children he used in his studies was small. Vygotsky proposed that language and thought develop together, Piaget’s thought were the opposite of this in that he theorized that thought proceeds…

Questions are constructed to reflect the level of thinking within each level. Bloom stated that levels of thinking are hierarchical and in order to reach the higher levels of thinking, children must acquire a mastery of the lower levels. The hierarchy is shown in fig 1.Sanders (1966) further sub categorized the comprehension level of the taxonomy into two categories, Translation and Interpretation. This created a seven level taxonomy, which gives more definition to the thinking levels, particularly when we talk about questioning in mathematics. Bloom’s questioning could be assumed to be ‘the sensitive guidance’ needed in Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal Development. A teacher using questioning based on Bloom’s taxonomy and hierarchical thinking is leading the child through the ZPD to master the skills and knowledge being…