Tonic bonding is known as a type of chemical bond where the valence electrons are lost from one atom and gained by another. This exchange results in a more from one atom and gained by another. When an atom gains or loses electrons while being bonded with another atom an ion is formed. This bond causes an atom to become either a positive or negative ion. Electrons have a negative charge, meaning that if an atom loses an electron, the amount of protons are greater than electrons. This makes the atom turn into a positive ion which is known as a cation.
The opposite of this is known as an anion, which is when an atom gains electrons and becomes an ion that is negative. Non-metals form anions and metals form cations. Through the duration of the lab, the indentification of ion charge is explored. For example, iron is an atom that has the ability to either form a 2+ cations or 3+ cations. Moreover, naming an ion is another important acspect that is investigated in the lab. When writing ions it is important to include roman numerals to illustrate the charge of the ion in the question.
To name cations the name of the elecment is included with the word ‘ion’ after it to illustrate that the element in it improper state is being examined. For example Na1+ is a sodium ion. However, if the element has mulitiple charges it is essential that the roman numeral is represented to dicatate the charge. For example, there are two iron ions, one with 2+ charge and one with a 3+ charge therefore it can be represented as either iron (II) or iron (III). In order to name an anion one must take away the ending and add ‘ide’ to it and add ‘ion. For example, Cl1- is a chloride ion.
In relations, ployatomic ions are ions that consists of group of metals and a group of non-metals that come together to form one non-metal. For example, within the lab a nitrate was ued in part 6. Nitrate (NO3) consists of one nitrogen atom and three oxygen atoms and conttains a 1- charge. Within polyatomic ions these atoms covalently bonded to each other and stay together as a charged unit. Compounds are made up of two or more different elements combined. There are two types of compounds which are ionic and molecular compounds.
Ionic compounds is the transfer of negative and positive charges that are held together by opposite attraction, making the final chage to be neutral. Ionic compounds are made of up a metal and non-metal. Moreover, As seen in part 5, a reactant within the lab is copper chloride (CuCl2). This is an ionic compound because maganese is a metal where oxygen is a non-metal. In addition the two have opposite charges meaning that maganese dioxide is an ionic compound. To name molecular compounds write the metal and then for the non-metal take the ending away and add ‘ide.
Molecular compounds are compounds of indivisual molocules. Molecular compounds are made up of two or more non-metals. To name molecular compounds, write the name of the first non-metal and then just like the ionic compound take away the ending and add ‘ide. ‘ Next add the roman prefixes to the beginning of the second non-metal. An example is a reactant in part seven of this is hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Word equations are chemical reacions put into words instead of chemical formulas. The information presented in a word equation include the reactants being put together and product they create.
Word equations also present the states each reactant is in and show the final state of the new product created when the reactants are combined. During this lab word equations are formulated for all chemical reactions being examined. For example, in part 1, a word equation for the reactant Copper (11) Sulfate and Iron was made and can be illustrated by the following equation; iron+copper (II) sulfatel iron (II) sulfate +copper. Compariningly, skeltal equations are chemical reactions put into formulas, and do not specifically indicate the amount of reactant and products within.
In addition, they tend to be exhibited as unbalanced equations. For example in part 1 the skeletal equation would be Fe +CuSO40 Fe2 (SO4)3+ Cu. On the reactant (left side( there are 1 iron, 1 copper, 1 sulfate and 4 oxygen atoms. On the product (right) side there are 2 iron, 1 copper, 3 sulfate and 7 oxygen atoms. Looking at this equation, it is evident that the amount of each atom on each side of the equation are not balanced, provided that it is a skeltal equation. Balanced chemical equations occur when the amount of atoms on the product side is equal to the amount of atoms on the reactant side.
In the chemical reaction in part 1 the balanced equation would be 2Fe +3CuSO40 Fe2(SO4)3+3Cu. In order to balance the equation, one must add a two infront of the iron on the reactant (left side) to achieve an equal amount of iron on the product side. As seen in the equation there are two iron on each side making it balanced. In addition to make copper sulfate balanced on each side, a 3 must be added infront of the copper sulfate (CuSO4) on the reactant (left) side and a 3 must be added to the copper on the product (right) side.
Now the equation is balanced as there are 2 iron, 3 copper, 3 sulfte and 7 oxygen atoms on both the reactant and product side. Synthesis, decomposition, single displacement, double displacement and combustion are the 5 general types of chemical reactions. Synthesis means to put things together to make a whole. During a synthesis reaction two or more substances combine to form a single new substance. In a synthesis equation there will always be two or more reactants, but only one product. The geneal formula for a synthesis reaction is: A+BOAB.
An example of this would be Lithium +Oxygend Lithum Oxide. Decomposition is defined as to separate or breakdown into smaller pieces. During a decomposition reaction, one substance breaks down into two or ore substances. It is a synthesis reaction in reverse. The general formula for this is: ABIA+B. An example of this is waterboxygen+hydrogen. Single deplacement occurs between an element and a compound. During single deplacement reactions one metal replaces another metal in a compound. The general formula for this is: Ax=YO Ay+X.
An example of a single deplacement reaction is Copper chloride+Aluminum chloride– +aluminum copper Within a double displacement reaction, a compont reacts with another creating two new compounds. Double displacements reactions involve the metals of two compounds displacing the metal in each compound. The general formula for a double dispalcement reaction is AX+BYDAY+BX. An example of this is Lead(II) Nitrate+Potassium lodide ILead (II) iodide+ Potassium nitrate. Combustion is defined as a chemical reaction between an organic compound usually being a hydrocarbon and oxygen gas.
The products in a complete combusion reaction are carbon dioxide and water whilst. In addition the products within an ncomplete combudion have water and carbon dioxide and can include other product. An example of his is Hydrocarbon +Oxgyena Carbon Dioxide + Water. Purpose In conducting this experiment, the primary obejctive is to indentify the various types of chemical reactions that can occur by observing and formulating the balanced chemical equations to help solidify analysis made Procedure
PART 1: COPPER (II) SULFATE AND IRON 1. Using a dropper place 5mL of copper (II) sulfate into a test tube 2. Gently place a tiny piece of iron wool into the test tube 3. For 24 hours let the copper (II) sulfate and iron soultion sit 4. After 24 hours observe the chemical reaction PART 2: COPPER AND SILVER NITRATE 1. Using a dropper place 5ml of AgNO3 solution into a small test tube 2. Wrap the copper wire into a spiral shape using a pencil 3. Place copper wire in silver nitrate solution 4. For 24 hours let the solution sit 5. After 24 hours observe the chemical reaction
PART 3: LEAD (II) NITRATE AND POTASSIUM IODIDE 1. With a dropper place 5mL clear aqueous lead (II) nitrate into a small test tube 2. Using another dropper place about 5 or more drops of potassium iodide into the test tube 3. Observe the chemical reaction PART 4: LEAD (II) NITRATE AND POTASSIUM IODATE 1. Place 5mL of clear aqueous lead (II) nitrate into a small test tube using a dropper 2. Add about 5 or more drops of potassium iodate with a dropper into the test tube 3. Observe the chemical reaction