had to study…. We did theory and followed up with practices…. since leaving high school I have continues to play sports. ” 4. 3 Obstacles to Womens Participation in Sports The obstacles to women’s participation were categorised into three and these are: financial, non-support and time. 4. 3. 1 Financial Influence Responses from participants revealed that there are varied items participants have to purchase or pay for, to enable them participate.
Participants identified the financial factors that influenced their decision to play sports are as follows: 15 out of 50 (30%) recreational and 5 out of 20 (25 %) elite participants did not play regularly due to expensive club membership fees and participation fees, 13 out of 50 (26%) recreational and 2 out of 20 (10%) Elite participants were influenced by the nonaffordability of equipment, gears and apparel, 12 out of 50 (24%) recreational and 4 out of 20 (20%) of Elite participants were influenced by high cost of transportation, and 8 out 50 (16%) recreational and 6 out of 20 (30%) Elite participants said miscellaneous spending on items like: diet/drinks, kids’ stuff jersey also increased the cost of participation.
4. 3. 1. 1 High Club Fees and High Cost of Services and Equipment Participants complained that it was extremely expensive to employ the services of professionals. They identified their inability to afford for other services to truncate regular participation. Responses from the most recreational participants and a few indicate that, it was very expensive paying for club membership fees/dues. Some of the participants said that they participated only when they had money to pay for the dues.
More than 40% of recreational participants and 2 out of 20 (10%) elite participants identified the high cost of paying for personal fitness instructors, private coaching and paying to use facilities as deterrents to their participation. Responses from the participants show that affording equipment, gear and apparel could be daunting. Participants suggested that miscellaneous spending deter some participants from regular participation. Participants also identified high transportation cost (high cost of fuel and bus pass) as a factor that hinder their participation in sports. Hibba a 56 year old recreational participant said, “| normally pay for the all-access annual membership …… mine expired in March but I was only able to renew it in June and it cost me $1040 for the annual payments for the entire family.
So between March to May, we did not participate in any sports. ” Also, another recreational participant, 58 year old Hayom said, “I use the daily participation pass which cost me $10:25. That is really expensive given the fact that I am currently unemployed. This has limited my participation opportunities so I play when I can afford. ” For 42 year old Delicia, a recreational participant it was all about the high cost of equipment and rental facilities she said, “I like to rent equipment…. whenever I can. It is very expensive renting these days.
I have reduced participation due to money issues…. the best way is to buy them to guarantee regular participation…… ut this is not the case…. “the used and cheap gear are so hard to find… I have checked several times at value village and several garage sale but damn…….. it’s impossible to find. ” Another recreational participant 57 year old Delphina, said “Buying the apparel and protective gear cost me so much for my two kids playing hockey. Hence sometimes, I have to stop participating to enable me pay for my kids to play. ” Ira a 49 year old recreational participant said, “My twin girls practically forced me to buy them some sports memorabilia at the sports sale. I was totally unprepared for that spending…. such things deter me from coming to play…
I cannot come here without them so I am compelled to stay home school is on holidays… myself, I am an impulse shopper so anytime there is sports sale here, I run into financial trouble…. so I do not come here whenever they have sales. ” Participants said that their irregular participation is tied to their ability to afford on time. For example according to Mina a 45 year old recreational participant, “Participants suggested that transportation fares and gas adds to the cost of participation and is a factor that makes them to irregularly play sports. ” 4. 3. 2 Non-support Results show that, the lack of support is one of the factors that has influenced their participation in sports.
Responses from participants show that: 6 out of 50 (12%) recreational and 1 out of 20 (5%) Elite participants were influenced by stakeholder disapproval, 13 out of (26%) recreational and 1 out of 20 (5%) elite participants were influenced by discrimination (stigmatization, stereotyping, and biased media coverage), and 17 out of 50 (34%) recreational and 2 out of 50 (10%) elite participants were influenced by restrictions imposed by the national health insurance which does not cover certain injuries. Please refer to table and figure 4. 6 on appendix A for more details. Responses identified by participants indicate that they do not have the needed support from interest groups (family, community, school, coaches, friends, and so on). Participants said this has discouraged them at times from participating.
Also, responses from participants indicate that, they have suffered from various forms of discrimination such as: pay inequalities, male coaches’ preferred, unequal sponsorship or participants and many other challenges they face. Some of these challenges hich occur in the form of discrimination have been identified by participants to , include, stigmatisation being tagged and humiliated in community, stereotyping, name calling, and biased media coverage, over sexualisation of female athletes, negative publicity of female athletes and more attention given to the male athlete. Participants complained that there is inadequate and unequal media attention and respect given to women sports in the media. There were instances, where female coaches complained that though they had the sa even higher, qualifications as their male counterparts, they were less preferred and less paid compared to their male counterparts.
For example in the words of Mira, a 38 year old recreational participant, the family is so against her participation in sports that her playing sports revolves around whether or not they come around to visit her or not. She said ” my entire family think I should rather focus on marriage…… I love to swim….. SO whenever they are around for a visit, I do not play any sports… I resume play when they go back. ” Participants identified portraying women as sex objects in the media landscape and the society is not doing enough to clear the negative image and perceptions of women as sexual objects. She like the other participant feel that there is the need for equal treatment for men and women to neutralise the perception people have on the role of the woman in society now extended to sports.
According to Ina, a 33 year old recreational participant, “Women are portrayed as sexual objects during boxing fights….. they are those who carry the score cards….. I find that degrading. Why can’t the men show the score cards when women box… Have you seen the costume the football women wear… it is crazy. ” Additionally, Dira a 43 year old recreational participant said, “| come from a small community in Newfoundland and I played with the boys in the same team…….. There, you wouldn’t find many girls playing sports………. the boys in my team wouldn’t pass the ball to me…. I was just in there to make up the numbers…. though I played better than most of the boys…. this discouraged me from playing.
Also, Nina a 41 year old recreational participant said, “Sometimes I hear people make comments like… are you a man or woman? Others will refer to you as man woman… They ask questions like, why are you so ripped? …… There is nothing feminine about you. “I must confess I am bothered by those comments though I pretend | don’t care…… honestly I do. ” For Della, a 45 year recreational participant, “the media do proper advertisement of mens sports and this results in increased patronage at the stadium and more money for them and the cycle continues. “I believe if the same effort is put in the women’s sports, it will whip up interest in women sport and it will improve patronage”. It is not as boring as they make people to believe.
Sakina a 37 year old recreational participant said, “I was with national women’s soccer team and my twin brother was with the men’s junior soccer team in my home country (Bangladesh). He got better paid than I was. I think it is unfair. He puts in more effort because he is better motivated… so I quit. Since I have been here, I have just doing recreational stuff to keep me active. ” According to Delay a 54 year old elite participant/coach, “The school teams receive sponsorship every year but about 70% for the men and 30% for the women. Before I came here it used to be 27%. ” 55 year old recreational participant Rita, adds that, “In this all women’s facility,