The introduction of Protestantism throughout Europe held great impact on its society. Up until the the end of the fifteenth century, the Catholic Church was an eminent power, controlling the minds, actions, and wallets of nearly all Europeans. However, after Pope Leo X issued indulgences, to start the construction of St. Peter’s Basilica, Martin Luther started a reformation that sparked a split within the Church. Soon Luther’s preachings began to spread across Europe, amassing a myriad of followers. Simultaneously, a Frenchmen named John Calvin began to preach his beliefs about Christianity, accumulating a plethora of subscribes.
Individually, and along with a plethora of other factors, they laid the building blocks of the Protestant Reformation. Chiefly in Germany, France and in England, Protestantism ( more specifically Lutheran and Calvinist) became a prominent and prevalent entity, forcing the religion to get attention from Catholic sovereignty. Consequently, this heed and the blatant religious differences ignited great Wars of Religion in Germany, France and England. Although most aspects of these Wars of Religion greatly differed, they did have multiple similarities.
Obviously they were all wars of religion, however, rooted much deeper, Germany, France, and England had initial reactions to the introduction of Protestantism, however then changed their reaction. Additionally, they all had similarities with their conclusion of the war, and were all left with residual issues. Rulers of France, Germany, and England all originally established their country’s views and legislation Protestantism based on their own personal beliefs, however a significant event in each country forced the rulers to annul their original reactions and create new legislation.
In France, Protestantism was originally tolerated because the vast majority of noblemen were comprised of Huguenots. However, change occurred in 1572 after assassins attempted to kill many French noblemen. Commencing the French War of Religion, this led to a time where Huguenots were not tolerated. In England, Puritans were originally not tolerated, under the kingship of King Henry VIII, however, after coveting a divorce, the Pope would not annul his marriage.
Therefore, he hired Protestant servants in 1527 to sever ties between the English Church and the Catholic Church. The English Parliament supported King Henry VIII’s decision of disengagement, putting forward “a number of acts that severed ties between the English church and Rome. ” In Germany, initially ruler Charles V enacted the Interim, “Which restored Catholic’s right to worship in Protestant lands while still permitting Lutherans’ to celebrate their own services. ” However, after Germany’s citizens rioted, he repudiated and rejected his previous legislation.
These changes all signify the importance of the masses in these societies. Although not always displayed, it was essential that the rulers of France, Germany, and England respected and listened to the cries of their people. The French, German, and English original legislation of Protestants were changed after a significant table turning event or uprising that pushed the ruler to follow what others yearned. After the Wars of Religion in Germany, England and France, there were many residual issues that affected the countries.
Although the Protestant Reformation is generally viewed as a time of religious amalgamation and social acceptance, Germany, England and France faced complications. After the French wars of Protestant Reformation, King Henry IV faced two main residual issues. First, true Calvinists and Catholics feuded with one another, as well as with a group of neutrals called the Politiques. This was due to the”compromising spirit” of the pact. Secondly, the Edict of Nantes undermined the power of monarchical authority in France, forcing King Henry IV to initiate the fabrication of an amended version.
Through many different methods, including utilizing nobles and many citizens, King Henry was able to resolve both residual issues. In England, Queen Elizabeth I was faced with preventing a break of Puritans from her nation. Since Puritans believed in independent communities separate from outside powers, they “tried to undercut the bishops’ authority by placing control of church administration in the hands of the local congregation. ” However, resolving the issue, Queen Elizabeth denied the motion.
Following the conclusion of the German wars of Protestant Reformation, “Calvinist[s], Anabaptist[s], and other dissenting groups,” were excluded from the Peace of Augsburg, causing turmoil and conflict internally; the future conflicts were eventually resolved. The cessation the Wars of Religion lead to residual issues that affected their citizens, although the rulers helped solve the drastic problems. Concluding the European Wars of Religion, Germany, France, and England all resolved the conflict in very similar manners.
Paramount, the German, French, and English wars ended with a compromise, as well as the spread of Protestantism. Ger concluded their war with the Peace of Augsburg. Signed in 1555, the compromise granted individual rulers to choose religion for their land, signifying the toleration and spread of Protestantism in Germany. England concluded their war with the 39 Articles of Religion. Signed in 1563, this compromise combined Catholic rituals and Calvinist doctrines, while denouncing parts of the English Church, ultimately helping Protestantism spread throughout England.
France concluded their war with the Edict of Nantes. Enacted in 1598, this compromise granted Huguenots substantial rights and complete tolerance within the borders. Compromise and religious tolerance were the main similarities concluding the war. The European Wars of Religion, although in some aspects differed, had many similarities. They all displayed similarities in conclusion and compromise, the spread of Protestantism, initial reaction followed by change, and residual issues. In conclusion the similarities shared between these great wars proved the importance of religious tolerance.