Socialization is the process by which individuals learn to become members of a society. It is through socialization that people learn the norms, values, and behaviors that are expected of them in their particular culture. Socialization occurs throughout our lives, but is especially important during childhood, when we are learning how to interact with others and become functioning members of society. There are two main types of socialization: primary and secondary.
Primary socialization occurs during childhood and is when we first learn the basics of our culture and how to function within it. We learn things like language, values, and customs from our families, who are our primary socializing agents. Secondary socialization happens later in life and is when we learn how to operate within specific social groups, like our workplace or religious community. We learn the specific norms and expectations of these groups from the people within them. Socialization is an important process that helps us to become functioning members of society.
Socialization is the study of one’s culture and how to live within it. The process by which a culture is passed from generation to generation is known as socialization. Individuals acquire skills and tendencies for behaving and participating in society during this time. People develop abilities and habits that are required for functioning and participating in society over this period of time.
Socialization is a lifelong process that begins in childhood and continues throughout adulthood. There are different types of socialization, such as primary socialization and secondary socialization.
Primary socialization occurs during infancy and childhood. This is when children learn the basic values, beliefs, and norms of their culture. They learn how to speak, walk, dress, and behave in socially acceptable ways. Primary socialization takes place within the family, where parents or guardians teach their children about their culture. Schools, religious institutions, and the media also play a role in primary socialization.
Secondary socialization occurs later in life and refers to the process of learning new values, beliefs, and norms. This can happen when people move to a new culture or enter a new stage in life, such as adolescence or adulthood. Secondary socialization takes place outside of the family, in institutions like schools, the workplace, and the military. Peers also play a role in secondary socialization, as they can help individuals learn about new norms and values.
People undergo both primary and secondary socialization throughout their lives. These two processes are essential for learning how to live within one’s culture.
Professor Emeritus Charles Cooley classifies socialization into two stages: primary and secondary. Primary socialization refers to the early years of childhood development. It happens when a youngster learns the customs, ideas, and behaviors that are expected of persons from his or her society.
It is during these years that we develop our self-image—our sense of who we are, what we are good at, and what role we play in society. Secondary socialization occurs when we leave our family of origin and enter new social groups—such as those based on our occupation, religion, or ethnicity. It also happens later in life when we face significant changes in our social roles (for example, becoming a parent). With each new group, we learn its expectations and how to behave appropriately within it.
Primary socialization takes place within the family. It is here that children first learn the norms and values of their culture. The family is the most important agent of primary socialization for infants and young children. Children learn basic values—such as the importance of work, thrift, and self-control—from their parents. They also learn about social roles—for example, that men are usually the breadwinners and women usually take care of the household and raise the children. Parents (and other family members) teach these basic values and social roles through their words and actions.
As children get older, they expand their circle of social contacts to include friends, teachers, coaches, and others outside the family. These new contacts provide them with new role models, who may reinforce or challenge the values and social roles they learned at home. For example, a child whose parents value hard work may see a friend’s father sitting around watching television all day and begin to question the importance of work.
Secondary socialization happens throughout our lives, as we interact with new people and enter new groups. It usually occurs when we leave our family and enter the workforce, go to college, get married, or have children of our own. With each new group, we learn its expectations and how to behave appropriately within it.
For example, a student entering college will need to learn the rules and norms of academic life—such as how to study effectively, how to manage their time, and how to interact with professors. A person who gets married will need to learn the expectations and roles of marriage—such as sharing household chores, making joint decisions, and being faithful to their spouse.
Secondary socialization can also happen later in life, as we face significant changes in our social roles. For example, a person who becomes a parent will need to learn the expectations and roles of parenthood—such as providing love and care, setting limits, and teaching values. A person who changes jobs will need to learn the expectations and roles of their new job—such as how to dress, how to interact with co-workers, and what is expected of them in terms of work hours and productivity.
Secondary socialization can be positive or negative. It can reinforce the values and social roles we learned in primary socialization, or it can challenge them. It can help us adapt to new situations and groups, or it can cause us stress and conflict. It can help us learn new skills and knowledge, or it can cause us to question our abilities and worth.
Secondary socialization is a lifelong process that helps us learn the expectations and roles of our various social groups. It is an important part of our social development and helps us adapt to new situations and groups throughout our lives.