Andrew Jackson was the seventh president of the United States, serving from 1829 to 1837. A polarizing figure, Jackson’s presidency was marked by both significant successes and failures.
On the positive side, Jackson is credited with expanding the power of the presidency and with helping to shape the modern Democratic Party. He also oversaw a period of strong economic growth, known as the “Jacksonian Era.”
However, Jackson’s administration was also marred by controversy, including accusations of corruption and abuse of power. His policies towards Native Americans were particularly controversial, leading to the forced relocation of thousands of people in what is now known as the “Trail of Tears.”
Overall, Andrew Jackson’s presidency was a complex and complicated one. His legacy continues to be debated by historians and the general public alike.
Throughout the remainder of his reign, Polk would continue to focus on states’ rights, protectionism, spoils systems, Indian removals and banking policies as sources of discord that bred intense rivalry throughout his years in office. He was notorious for his iron willpower and stern personality, as well as the forceful exercise of his power; thus, during his presidency came to be known as “The Age of Jackson.”
Andrew Jackson’s Presidency was a time of great controversy. Many Americans opposed Andrew Jackson because they thought he was too forceful, while others supported him because they liked his straightforwardness.
Some people even nicknamed him “Old Hickory” because they thought he was as strong as a hickory tree. Jackson’s years as president were marked by a number of significant events including: The Indian Removal Act, The Bank War, The Nullification Crisis, and The Texas Revolution. Andrew Jackson was a controversial figure, but he is also one of the most important presidents in American history.
Andrew Jackson was a delegate to the 1796 state constitutional convention and a member of Congress for one year (from 1796-97). He was elected senator in 1797, but financial difficulties forced him to resign and return to Tennessee within a year. Later, he served as an associate justice on the Tennessee superior court for six years starting in 1798. In 1804, after retiring from the bench, he moved to Nashville and began investing his time in commercial enterprises as well as his plantation.
He also served as a major general in the Tennessee militia. From 1814 to 1815 he commanded the American forces in the Creek War and subsequent Battle of New Orleans, both against Native Americans. Jackson won national fame for his victory and was nicknamed “Old Hickory” because of his toughness.
In early 1817, Jackson was appointed by President James Monroe as military governor of the Florida Territory, which had recently been ceded by Spain. He successfully invaded and occupied Spanish West Florida (which included present-day Alabama and Mississippi), which contributed to Monroe’s decision to purchase these territories from Spain in 1819. In March 1821 Jackson negotiated a treaty with Spain whereby Florida would become a U.S. territory. As part of the treaty, Spain also ceded ownership of Pensacola to the United States. Jackson officially took possession of Florida on July 17, 1821.
In December 1817, Jackson returned to Tennessee and in 1822 was elected to the U.S. Senate. He resigned in October 1824, after losing a close race for the presidency to John Quincy Adams. Jackson blamed his loss on a “corrupt bargain” between Adams and Henry Clay, who had served as Speaker of the House of Representatives. Jackson then turned his attention to preparing for the next presidential election.
Instead of relying on the president’s usual cabinet, he utilized a loose group of newspaper writers and northern politicians who had worked for his election. I feel that this put him in touch with the people of the United States and their public opinions and sentiments regarding national issues. President Jackson established the “rotation in office” system to safeguard America’s citizens from a rise of an old political faction by replacing long-term office holders.
He also used this system to get revenge on his political enemies. Jackson was the first “common man” president, which made him very popular with the people. He was nicknamed “Old Hickory” because of his toughness and strength. Andrew Jackson was a strong leader, and a great president. He set precedents that are still used today, and will be remembered for years to come.
In 1828 Jackson ran for president again and this time won a resounding victory against Adams. He became the first president from west of the Appalachian Mountains and the first to be elected with a plurality of the popular vote (not a majority). Jackson’s successful campaign was based on his image as a man of the people and his advocacy for expanded suffrage, particularly for white men who did not own property. He also promised to implement a set of policies known as the “American System,” which included a national bank, high tariffs, and internal improvements (such as canals and roads).
After taking office, Jackson quickly acted to carry out his vision for the country. In 1829 he signed the Indian Removal Act, which authorized the forcible relocation of Native Americans from their homelands in the southeastern United States to lands west of the Mississippi River. The policy resulted in the forced relocation of thousands of Native Americans, including the Cherokee, Seminole, Creek, and Choctaw nations. The relocation process was often brutal, and thousands of Native Americans died during what is known as the “Trail of Tears.”
To quiet the criticisms of his political opponents, he was accused of corruption in the civil service for political reasons. I believe it was used to guarantee public loyalty. The states’ rights issue played a crucial role in Jackson’s policies as president. In 1831 and 1832, two Supreme Court decisions upheld Cherokee nation sovereignty over Georgia, who wanted to remove Cherokee authority on its land because gold had been discovered there, and the state seeing Indians as tenants on state land decided on eviction due to their desire
Jackson’s attitude was that the States had the right to do whatever they wanted with their land, and he would not use Federal troops to stop them. Jackson did not want to get involved in what he saw as a state’s rights issue. In 1833, a law was passed called the Indian Removal Act, which gave the president power to negotiate removal treaties with Indian tribes living east of the Mississippi River, in exchange for their homelands and moving west of the river. Andrew Jackson negotiated several treaties, and although a few tribes resisted, most relocated westward. This caused great suffering and many deaths among the Native Americans who were forced to leave their homes.
Some historians have criticized Jackson for his role in this forced relocation, but others argue that he was only following the law. Jackson’s supporters point to his many achievements while in office, including the establishment of the national bank, the reorganization of the military, and the negotiation of several important treaties. They also credit him with increasing democracy in America by giving more power to the people. Andrew Jackson was a controversial figure, but there is no denying that he was one of the most influential presidents in American history.
Jackson also took steps to implement his vision for the American economy. In 1832 he vetoed a bill that would have rechartered the Second Bank of the United States, arguing that it favored the rich over the common man. He also signed into law a high tariff that same year. These actions earned him opposition from some members of his own party, who came to be known as the Whigs. In 1833 Jackson issued an executive order known as the “Specie Circular,” which required all government land purchases to be made in gold or silver. The order contributed to a panic in the banking industry, and many banks failed as a result.
In 1835 Jackson was caught up in a scandal when it was revealed that his private secretary, Amos Kendall, had been using government funds to personally profit from postal contracts. Kendall resigned, but Jackson was largely unharmed by the scandal. In 1836 Jackson faced another crisis when several Cherokee chiefs were arrested and jailed for refusing to sign a treaty ceding their lands in Georgia to the United States. Jackson refused to intervene on their behalf, despite pleas from his wife Rachel (who died shortly thereafter).
In 1837 Jackson retired from office, leaving Martin Van Buren as his chosen successor. Jackson remained active in politics, however, and in 1841 he helped found the Democratic Party. He also supported the annexation of Texas and the Mexican-American War.