Augustus Caesar was a political leader in Roman Empire. Augustus was born Gaius Julius Caesar in Rome on September 23, 63 BC. Augustus became the first Roman Emperor Augustus in 27 BC when his great uncle and adoptive father Augustus died. Augustus is known for improving the lives of people in Roman Empire during his rule. This included providing roads, aqueducts, and other public works. Augustus was a very popular leader by the end of his rule. Augustus Caesar died on August 19, 14 AD.

Augustus Caesar is remembered as a man who improved the lives of people in Rome. Augustus reigned from 27 BC to 14 AD during which time many advancements were made throughout Rome’s territory under Augustus’s rule.

Augustus Caesar , originally Gaius Octavius Thurinus, c. 63 BC – 19 August 14 AD, was the first Roman Emperor Augustus , ruling from 27 BC until his death in 14 AD. He is considered to be the founder of the Roman Empire , which he ruled with his adoptive brother and designated heir, Tiberius . Upon his accession as emperor , it took him several years to attain a position of power within Rome against formidable rivals such as Marcus Antonius (Mark Antony), Cleopatra and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus .

His status as a successful military commander however allowed him to take control of the state upon defeating these adversaries. As a result of this victory Augustus would no longer be called “Octavian”, but would instead be known as Augustus , a name which evokes ideas of strength and divinity. Augustus was born Gaius Octavius Thurinus, the son of Gaius Octavius (consul 87 BC) and Atia Balba Caesonia . He had two older siblings named Gaius Octavius (consul 60 BC) and Julia (both parents died when he was young).

Augustus was related to Julius Caesar through his great-grandmother Sempronia who was a daughter of Roman dictator Lucius Cornelius Sulla . Augustus adopted the name Caesar originally as a cognomen , or nickname, as it is customary for Roman aristocrats to adopt a cognomen from the name of their ancestor, but Augustus was also descended from Caesar on his mother’s side. He was born Gaius Octavius Thurinus, but after some years of obscurity, he was renamed by the Roman Senate to be Augustus .

As emperor, Augustus launched a successful military campaign in Germania and Illyricum , expanded Rome’s territory in Africa , enlarged his family’s power with social and political reforms, and changed the face of Rome forever with the creation of monuments such as the Ara Pacis (Altar of Peace) and Golden Shield –the Aurea Aetas. In 28 BC Augustus conquered Pannonia . In 27 BC he conquered Creta et Cyrenaei, adding Egypt to Rome’s empire.

Augustus’ final task was to defeat the resurgent republican forces led by Antonius and his own adopted son, Marcus Junius Brutus . Augustus defeated his opponents at the Battle of Philippi , and in 42 BC the senate granted Augustus a permanent consulship; Augustus used this power to effect a peaceful transition in Imperial Rome from chaos and civil war to principate with bi-cameral legislature. The Roman Republic had been transformed into an Empire, Augustus being its first Roman Emperor .

Augustus started a reign of about fifty years during which he reformed the Roman system of taxation, developed networks of roads with an official courier system , established a standing army (and a small navy ), established the Praetorian Guard along with secret police called the frumentarii , created official police and fire-fighting services for Rome, and rebuilt much of the city. Augustus’ many reforms had an impact on Roman society, as well Augustus was considered the “first citizen” of Rome, he was fully Augustus .

The changes made by Augustus during his reign (and those made by other emperors) were so significant that they produced what modern historians call the Pax Romana or Pax Augusta . Augustus died in 14 AD at age 75, but due to his success as emperor he was deified ( Divus Augustus ) after his death. His name is immortalized with titles such as Princeps (leader), Augustus (honorable), Emperor Augustus , Caesar Augustus ; he also held the ancient Roman titles of ” Pontifex Maximus “, ” Augustus Imperator ” and in the Greek culture he was known as Basiliscus .

Augustus’ adopted son Tiberius had been a successful general under Augustus , but Augustus forced him to retire from politics. In 29 BC Augustus restored powers back to the Senate, yet Augustus maintained his dominant position over the Senate through his influence over political affairs. Augustus succeeded in establishing a foundation for social harmony which transformed Rome into a united city-state with shared values of Roman courtesy and traditional morality.

As princess he (first citizen), capitalized on propaganda surrounding Augustus’ military victories, re-interpreted Republican traditions so they would accommodate the new order, helped secure approval for his succession from the Senate, and disseminated many of Augustus’ moral values. Augustus centralized Roman religion, administration, finance , military and civil services including Rome’s Civil Service which had previously been spread out among public officials who were potential rivals with different strong ideas about what was best for Rome.

Augustus also made Rome a ” gleaming city ” on the Tiber river whose appearance gave credence to his claim that he had restored Rome to its grandeur of Augustus . Augustus’ vision is summarized through political pamphlets that were distributed in order to elicit popular support for this new government. Augustus reformed the Roman system of taxation , developed networks of roads with an official courier system, established a standing army (and small navy), established the Praetorian Guard , secret police called the frumentarii , created official police and fire-fighting services for Rome, and rebuilt much of the city.

Augustus’ many reforms had an huge impact on Roman society which transformed Rome from a city of brick buildings to a city made of marble . Augustus was considered the “first citizen” in which Augustus bore all of the titles that have been mentioned above, yet Augustus also held ancient Roman titles such as Pontifex Maximus (chief priest), Augustus Imperator (supreme military commander), and Basiliscus (Greek word used when referring to Augustus). Augustus’ propaganda campaign throughout his reign resulted in the spread of Augustus values which emphasized honour over everything else.

These values were propagated through orations where Augustus spoke about traditional Roman social mores such Augustus values found in Augustus’ famous moral praise speech of Rome. Augustus’ political pamphlets, which were distributed throughout the Roman Empire, were very effective at persuading Augustus subjects to adopt Augustus values during Augustus time. Augustus also worked hard to transform the city of Rome into a more glorious city with huge monuments and buildings that can be seen by all who visited this metropolis located on the Tiber river.

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