One of the things that makes Arthur Miller’s “The Crucible” so compelling is the way he weaves allusions throughout the play. Allusions are references to other works of art, literature, or history, and they can add a lot of depth and nuance to a work.
In “The Crucible,” Miller makes allusions to a number of different works, including the Bible, Shakespeare, and Greek mythology. These allusions help to create a richer understanding of the characters and the events of the play.
For example, when Reverend Parris is talking about his daughter Betty’s strange behavior, he says that she was “crawling on all fours like a beast” (2.1.38). This is an allusion to the story of Adam and Eve in the Bible. In the story, Adam and Eve are expelled from the Garden of Eden after they eat the fruit of the tree of knowledge. This allusion suggests that Betty has been tainted by some sort of evil knowledge.
Another example comes when John Proctor is talking about his wife, Elizabeth. He says that she is “a cold woman” who is “sickly so” (2.1.127-128). This is an allusion to Shakespeare’s “Macbeth,” in which Lady Macbeth is haunted by her role in her husband’s crimes. The allusion suggests that John Proctor is not entirely happy with his wife, and that he may be considering committing adultery.
Finally, when Abigail Williams is talking about the girls who were dancing in the woods, she says that they were “crying out for mercy to the gods” (2.1.151). This is an allusion to Greek mythology, specifically the story of Iphigenia. In the story, Iphigenia is sacrificed to appease the gods. The allusion suggests that the girls are in danger of being harmed or killed by the powers that be.
These are just a few examples of the many allusions in “The Crucible.” Arthur Miller’s use of allusions enhances our understanding of the play and creates a richer and more complex work of art.
In Arthur Miller’s play The Crucible, John Proctor, Elizabeth Proctor, and Reverend Hale are the main characters. They had tolerated and struggled with misunderstood allusions such as witchcraft that had affected their personal lives with problems since the beginning. Each character had displayed a specific evil from the start and through their actions at the conclusion of the play they demonstrated their true qualities.
The main character, John Proctor had committed adultery and Elizabeth Proctor his wife had known about it. Reverend Hale on the other hand was a man of integrity and knowledge but he allowed fear to rule some of his actions. The decisions that each made throughout the story reveals their personal beliefs which are allusions to The Bible.
When John Proctor cheats on his wife, Elizabeth, with Abigail Williams, it is an allusion to The Bible’s Seventh Commandment, “Thou shalt not commit adultery” (Exodus 20:14). This act not only breaks the commandment, but also destroys the trust between husband and wife. The fact that Elizabeth knows about the affair and forgives John shows her great strength of character. The affair also sets up the conflict between John and Abigail, which is a major plot point in the play.
Reverend Hale is a man of God who is called in to investigate the accusations of witchcraft. However, he allows fear to rule his actions at times. For example, when he hears that people are saying that Elizabeth Proctor is a witch, he immediately goes to her house to try and get her to confess.
It is only after speaking with John Proctor that he realizes that she is not a witch. This alludes to The Bible’s statement that “The fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom” (Proverbs 9:10). In other words, Hale’s initial actions were not wise because they were based on fear, not knowledge.
The decisions that each character makes throughout the story reveals their personal beliefs, which are allusions to The Bible. John Proctor’s affair is an allusion to The Seventh Commandment, “Thou shalt not commit adultery.” Reverend Hale’s actions are allusions to The Bible statement that “The fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom.” These allusions show that Arthur Miller was a skilled writer who could use religious references to enhance his story.
John Proctor, the tragic hero in The Crucible, was a vocal and honest individual who had been caught up in numerous conflicts that had put him on the verge of despair. Proctor was enraged with Mary Warren because she possessed evidence but did not tell the court enough.
The play’s tragic hero John Proctor was an outspoken and honest man who had been deeply in conflicted situations that led him to stage of crisis. For example, Proctor was agitated towards Mary Warren with her having evidence and not being truthful enough to tell the court. In a display of wrath, he says to Mary Warren, “I have given you a core of goodness to be nurtured… yet you turn from my teaching, like an ungrateful whore!” (Miller 87).
In this case, Elizabeth was furious with Abigail for suggesting she might take her place. In jealousy, Elizabeth tells Proctor, “Then go and tell her she’s a harlot. Whatever promise she thinks she may sense – break it, John.
The reader gets to see the dynamic between the two women and how it affects Proctor. The Crucible is a story with many allusions. An allusion is a reference to something that is not directly mentioned in the text. Allusions can be to famous people, places, events, or works of art. In The Crucible, Arthur Miller uses allusions to add depth and realism to his story.
For example, Elizabeth apologised to Proctor for her misdeeds and how good a man he was all along as a humble woman. In a show of love, Elizabeth tells John, “John, I was so unattractive, so poorly put together that no honest affection could ever come to me! Suspicion…was like living in an ice house!” (236) This indicates how her personality altered as a result of the hatred she had for Abigail from the start that it almost influenced her conclusions at the end of the play.
The allusion to the winter season is also present in this quote as well. The coldness of winter is often seen as a time when people are at their worst due to the gloominess and darkness that it brings. This could be interpreted as Elizabeth finally seeing the truth about Abigail and her true intentions.
The allusion to winter could also be interpreted as Elizabeth’s finally coming to terms with her own actions and how she treated Proctor. The fact that she says “Suspicion…were a cold house I kept!” suggests that she was aware of the distance that she put between herself and Proctor but was unable to do anything about it until now.
Another example of an allusion in The Crucible can be found in the character of John Proctor. After his wife Elizabeth is arrested, Proctor says to Judge Danforth, “I have no love for Mr. Parris, sir, but I think he’s a sick man. The light’s gone out of his eyes these past two years, ever since Betty Parris sickened” (196).
The allusion here is to the Biblical story of Samson and Delilah. In the story, Samson is a powerful man who is brought down by the woman he loves. The fact that Proctor compares Parris to Samson suggests that he believes that Parris is a weak man who has been manipulated by the people around him.