There are archetypal patterns in life. They reoccur and become familiar to people through all ages and ethnicities. Throughout history, few literary works have captivated audiences by incorporating these patterns. The epic Beowulf is one literary work that effectively incorporates timeless components. The epic poem relates the tale of Beowulf, a warrior who throughout his life overcomes evils. It has strong elements of Anglo-Saxon elements of bravery, strength and of religious tenets.
Beowulf enjoys universal appeal primarily because of its elements of characterization, plot and theme that prove timeless. Beowulfs portrayal of human nature proves eternal. The protagonist Beowulf brashly lists his accomplishments before entering battle: “But the truth is simple: no man swims in the sea as I can, no strength is a match for mine other monsters crowded around me, continually attacking. I treated them politely, offering the edge of my razor-sharp sword,” (265-294). His boasts are symbolic of his personal insecurity. Beowulf seems scared of defeat and faliure.
His boastful remarks are reminders to himself of his invincibility. Because he is insecure, Beowulf is an accurate representation of human nature. The poem also discloses social behaviors through Welthow, who portrays appropriate submissiveness of a wife. Women in society and position always are hot topics for discussion in any country and time period. She is subservient to her husband and ” [pours] a portion from the jeweled cup for each, till [she] had carried the mead-cup among [the guests],” (354-372).
Jealousy is a accurately portrayed in the poem. a human attribute that will apply to any time period anywhere. In the incident with Unferth, for example: “angry that anyone in Denmark or anywhere on earth had ever acquired glory and fame greater than his own”(236-238) tries to belittle Beowulfs claims to bravery, and, by doing so, adds realistic qualities to his character. Belief Divine or supernatural notions are also tendencies of human nature. The poem reflects this ageless concern through references to “that Shepherd of Evil” (432) and “[sacrifices] to the old stone gods” (90).
These are both conflicting allusions to the two prominent religions of the time. One pertains to Christian ideology; i. e. “The Almighty God” (493), and “the Almighty making the earth” (8), and the other relates to Anglo Saxon religious beliefs; i. e. , “the omens were good” (118) and “fate will unwind as it must,” (189). The poem alludes to Christianity, a monotheistic religion that rejects ideas of fate. On the other hand, there are rudiments of Anglo Saxon philosophy, pagan on account of its elements of fate.
The conflicts in the epic between the two opposite beliefs reflect human natures fickle notions and uncertainty in the belief in the divine. Additionally, the main characters attributes and conflicts would classify him as a “messiah,” an archetypal pattern. Like Jesus and Moses, Beowulf, the epic hero, comes at a time of need and chaos in Herot, thereupon ending the chaos and destruction by killing Grendel and his mother. He comes after “twelve winters of grief,” (62) and avenges evil by “[purging] Herot clean,” (508).
Just as Moses who was reluctant to die without seeing the “promised land”, and Jesus who also was reluctant to die, Beowulf is “unwilling to leave this world,” (738) or complete the final task at hand. Thus, Beowulfs constituents of supernatural and religious notions and realistic portrayal of human nature create a universal appeal that proves timeless. The epic develops the nature of the universal and reoccurring battle that men fight against evil. The three battles that occur at different stages of Beowulfs life imply that the battle against evil is repetitious.
Symbolically the three battles are fought with evil: one with Grendel, one with Grendels mother, and the third with the dragon. Grendel is decidedly evil because he “was spawned in that slime, conceived by a pair of those monsters born of Cain, murderous creatures banished by God,” (20-23). Thus his mother is also of the same origin. The dragon as well is a great evil, whose breath “[was] burning hot, poison [poured] from his tongue,” (672-673). The three battles are fought at different times of Beowulfs life, to symbolize the perpetual war men fight against evil.
Beowulf previously fights various evils: “[He] fought that beasts last battle,”(290) “Huge sea-monsters [he] killed,”(308) “Hunting monstersand killing them one by one,”(56-158). Later Beowulf battles with Grendel, and “meant to hold the monster till its life leaped out, knowing the fiend was no use. ” (473-474) Beowulf then fights the mother of his former archenemy, Grendel, at the bottom of “heaving [waters]” (571) in “her terrible home. ” (565) Beowulfs final fight is against the dragon that breathed “murderous flames. ” (732) The three battles propose to the reader the reoccurring battle against evil.
However, the epic makes it clear that the battle isnt easily won. Beowulf struggles with Grendels mother. He “was weary”(619) and even his sword failed. In sheer desperation Beowulf manages to win, only by luck that a “heavy sword the best of all weapons,” was readily available. Without its help, Beowulf in his fight against evil would have surely lost. Beowulf would not have killed the dragon in his last battle if it were not for Wiglaf. Together they triumphed over evil. Because Beowulf doesnt succeed solely, it is deducted that the fight against evil is won through teamwork.
The concept of teamwork to succeed is universal, in that it is represented through religion. In Judaism, it takes ten or a minion to have valid prayer. In Christianity, all is encouraged to attend church to have unified prayer. The epic incorporates the universal concept of cooperation, thus adding to Beowulfs appeal. Beowulf fights all three main battles, thereby representing good, battling the ever-constant bad; “Monsters,” creatures of the unknown, symbols of evil from eras of the past, and for centuries to come.
These symbols of evil are valid at any time, thus validating Beowulfs universality. Mythical human ideals of invincibility and bravery are commingled with realistic attributes of failure and age in Beowulf to create a timeless appeal to all audiences. Bravery and strength characterize the protagonist, Beowulf. Strong Beowulf “survived the sea, smashed the monsters hot jaws, swam home from [his] journey,”(311). Beowulf has tremendous strength, which is an idealistic quality of most humans, past and present.
Beowulf, who has a “tight hard grip,” (447), would most likely appeal to Romans as well as nowaday men who watch Monday night football to enjoy pure physical strength. Invincible in his youth, Beowulf fought multitudes of sea-monsters. Beowulf however, never drowns, though laden in armor and mail, and seems to be invincible. Nevertheless, Beowulf falls victim to age. Beowulf in his final battle “must lean on younger arms. ” (776-778) In other words, Beowulf can no longer fend for himself solely.
He needs the help of at least another to conquer evil. This represents the belief of strength in number; men uniting will overcome. The change in his boasts reflects his age. Before his battle against Grendel he said, “therell be nothing to mourn over, no corpse to prepare for its grave,” (180-181). In his age however, he says to his men, “Wait for me (after the battle) we shall see who will survive this bloody battle,”(679-681). Beowulf, invincible in his youth, fails ultimately; ” his soul left his flesh, flew to glory,” (827-828).
His failure in his final battle against evil creates a mixture of realism and myth, thereby instituting timeless appeal. Beowulf will impact generations to come as it has affected past generations, because of its timeless and ageless elements of characterization, theme, and plot. Beowulf has an incorporation of timeless spiritualism that can accommodate an array of beliefs and, has ageless components of good vs. evil, and human ideals. Beowulf sets a universal precedent of timeless literature. Beowulf, like few other literary works, is ancient, but has not, and will not lose its appeal or audience.