Developmental psychology is the study of how children develop and change over time. Developmental psychologists often use Erik Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development to describe how children progress through different stages of life.
Erik Erikson believed that children go through eight different stages of development, each with its own challenges and tasks.
The first stage, infancy, is when babies learn to trust or mistrust others. It is important for caregivers to be responsive to infants’ needs so that they can learn to trust the world around them.
The second stage, toddlerhood, is when children learn to autonomy or shame and doubt. Toddlers are exploring their independence and trying new things. It is important for caregivers to provide support and encouragement during this stage so that children can feel confident in their abilities.
The third stage, preschool, is when children learn to initiative or guilt. Preschoolers are becoming more aware of the rules and expectations of society. It is important for caregivers to provide structure and guidance during this stage so that children can feel comfortable taking initiative.
The fourth stage, early childhood, is when children learn to industry or inferiority. During this stage, children are starting school and learning new skills. It is important for caregivers to provide support and encouragement during this stage so that children can feel proud of their accomplishments.
The fifth stage, adolescence, is when teenagers learn to identity or role confusion. Adolescents are exploring their identity and trying to figure out who they are. It is important for caregivers to provide support and guidance during this stage so that teenagers can feel comfortable with their identity.
During a nine-month-old child’s Child Observation session, the author of this paper took extensive notes. The goal of this paper is to analyze the youngster’s biological, cognitive, and psychosocial growth. The birth history of the kid, as well as the observations made and how the kid developed were all noted by the author of this paper.
The child that was observed is named Lily. She was born in August and her mother is Emily. Emily is a stay-at-home mom who used to work in an advertising agency. Lily’s father, Jeremy, is a successful doctor. Jeremy works long hours, but he is always home in time to have dinner with his family and spend some quality time with Lily before she goes to bed.
Lily has two older brothers, ages six and four. The family lives in a large house in the suburbs. Both of Lily’s parents are college educated and came from middle-class families.
During the observation, Lily was sitting on the floor playing with some toys. She had a few dolls and a stuffed animal. She was also playing with some blocks. Lily would stack the blocks up and then knock them down. She would giggle whenever she knocked them down.
Lily’s mother, Emily, was in the room with her during the observation. Emily was watching Lily and occasionally talking to her. Lily’s father, Jeremy, was not in the room during the observation.
The child for this child observation paper is a nine-month-old male who appears to be a healthy normal kid. His mother is Caucasian and his father half Caucasian and half Hispanic. Mother and father are not married, yet they live in the home together. He comes from a middle class family and has no siblings.
According to the Developmental psychologists, Erik Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development is one of the most well-known theories today. This theory explains that we go through eight stages in our lives each with a different crisis. We must overcome these crises in order to develop into a fully functioning adult.
The first stage of Erikson’s theory is trust vs mistrust and it begins at birth and lasts until around 18 months old. This is when an infant learns if they can trust the people around them to meet their needs such as food, love, and warmth. The second stage is autonomy vs shame and doubt and it occurs from 18 months until about 3 years old. During this stage, children learn if they are able to do things on their own or if they need help.
The third stage is initiative vs guilt and it takes place from 3 to 6 years old. This is when children learn about rules and how to follow them. The fourth stage is industry vs inferiority and it occurs from 6 to 12 years old. During this stage, children learn new skills and feel proud of their accomplishments. The fifth stage is identity vs role confusion and it happens during adolescence, from 12 to 18 years old. This is when teens figure out who they are and what they want to do with their lives.
The sixth stage is intimacy vs isolation and it occurs during young adulthood, from 18 to 40 years old. This is when we form close relationships with others. The seventh stage is generativity vs stagnation and it occurs during middle adulthood, from 40 to 65 years old. This is when we focus on giving back to the next generation. The eighth and final stage is ego integrity vs despair and it occurs during late adulthood, from 65 years old until the end of life. This is when we reflect on our lives and either feel contentment or regret.
The infant was observed in his home environment over the course of three days. The first day, the infant was observed while he was awake and interacting with his mother. The second day, the infant was observed while he was playing with his older cousin. The third day, the infant was observed while he was sleeping.
During the first day of observation, the infant was mostly happy and content. He smiled and cooed at his mother when she spoke to him. He also reached out to touch her face and hair. When his mother left the room, the infant became agitated and cried until she returned. This showed that he has a strong attachment to his mother and relies on her for comfort. The infant also displayed some separation anxiety when his mother left the room.
During the second day of observation, the infant was playful and curious. He crawled around the room exploring his surroundings. He also played with his older cousin, pulling her hair and grabbing her toys. The infant seemed to enjoy being around other people and did not show any signs of separation anxiety.
On the third day of observation, the infant was sleeping for most of the time. However, he did wake up briefly to feed and then went back to sleep. The infant seemed to be content and peaceful while he was sleeping.
Overall, the infant appeared to be healthy and happy. He was able to interact with his mother and older cousin and seemed to enjoy their company. The infant displayed some separation anxiety on the first day of observation, but this did not seem to be a persistent problem. Overall, the infant appeared to be developing normally according to Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development.