Congenital Scoliosis Research Paper

A vertebral column extends from your skull to your pelvis. It is made up vertebrae, which are serrated by masses of Fibrocartilage which are called intervertebral disks. The disks are connected by ligaments. An infant has 33 separate bones in the vertebrae column; however, the adult column has 26 bones, because four form into the coccyx. While the other five bones form the sacrum. ( Hole, 210 )The vertebral column not only supports the head and the trunk of the body, but it’s also flexible enough to allow movements such as bending forwards and backwards, or being able to rotate.

The vertebral column has four curvatures that give the column its ability to get back into its regular position after bending or turning. ( Hole, 211) These columns are as the following: thoracic, pelvic, cervical, and the lumber curvature. (Hole, 210 )A normal vertebrae has a drum-shaped body. The long rows of the vertebral bodies supports the weight of both the head and the trunk. Hole, 211) The thoracic vertebrae is made up of seven parts: The spinous process, the lamina, the transverse process, the facet that articulates with rib tubercle, the pedicle, the superior rticulating process, the facet that articulates with the rib head, and the body. (Hole, 214) There are twelve thoracic vertebrae. These vertebrae start out small and gradually get bigger as they go down. They are able to adapt to an amount of stress because of the augmented body weight they have to bare. ( Hole, 212) The Lumbar vertebrae consist of five vertebrae.

They can support more weight and they are bigger than the thoracic vertebrae. (Hole, 213) The Intervertebral disks separate the adjacent vertebrae, and are fastened to the rough upper and lower surfaces. The disks have cushions which softens the force of movements such as jumping or walking, which can fracture the vertebrae or jar the brain. (Hole, 211 ) There are two types of ligaments. They are called anterior ligaments and posterior ligaments. The anterior ligaments join the adjacent vertebrae onto the outside, while the posterior ligaments do the same process on the inside. Hole, 211)

The spinal cord is 40 to 50 cm long and 1 cm to 1. 5 cm in diameter. It is an extension from the foramen magnum, there it continues with the medulla to the first or second lumbar vertebrae. It is made up of 31 pairs of spinal nerves. The spinal cord is a cylindrical structure of the nerve tissue that is composed of white and gray matter. It is divided into four regions: the cervical, thoracic, lumbar, and the sacral. There are five special features of the spinal cord.

They are 1) Similar cross-sectional strutters at all spinal cord levels, 2) It can carry sensory information ( sensations ) from both the body and head to the central nervous system by afferent fibers, and it can process the information given, 3) Allows motor neurons can project their axons to the periphery to innervate keletal, and it can also project its axons to smooth muscles that mediate voluntary and in voluntary reflexes, 4) Contain the neurons of the descending axons mediate autonomic control for the visceral functions, and 5) This is a major concern for many clinics because a it is a major site of traumatic injury and it can also be a locus for many of disease processes. ( Dafny, 1 ) Scoliosis is a lateral curvature instead of a normally straight vertical line of the spine. (Osteoarthritis Health Center Scoliosis, 1) Even though the spine has a natural curve, it isn’t designed to ave a side to side curve. ( Cloe, 1 )

Almost 2% to 3% of Americans are diagnosed with scoliosis at the age of 16, but only less than 0. % have a curve that is over 40 degrees. Idiopathic scoliosis is a common condition that affects children ages 10 through 16. This can intensify their scoliosis during their growth spurt years, but won’t progress in adulthood. Many kids find out they have scoliosis through their school screening, or by a doctor. The tale-tell signs that someone might have scoliosis would be uneven shoulder, a bigger shoulder blade, uneven waste, and leaning to one side. Osteoarthritis Health Center Scoliosis, 2) The top four common types of scoliosis are including: Congenital scoliosis, Neuromuscular scoliosis, Degenerative Scoliosis, and Idiopathic scoliosis.

Congenital scoliosis is caused by a bone abnormality at birth. Neuromuscular scoliosis is a result of abnormal muscles or nerves. This type of scoliosis is frequently seen in people who have spina bifida or cerebral palsy, or can be accompanied by people with paralysis. Degenerative scoliosis is caused from a traumatic bone collapse, which can happen from a major back surgery or even osteoporosis. The final major type of scoliosis is Idiopathic. This is the most common type of scoliosis that has no identifiable cause. Though many theories have been thrown around, none have proven conclusive.

It is suggested that this type of scoliosis is inherited. Osteoarthritis Health Center Scoliosis, 2) Scoliosis has multiple affects on the body. When you have it as child, many people say you don’t feel the pain from it which can make it go unnoticed. ( Cloe, 1 ) If it goes unnoticed long enough, it can cause major problems. It can cause arthritis, because of the joints between the vertebras to ecome damaged, that can lead to chronic back arthritis. ( Cloe, 1) Scoliosis can also cause a hunch in your back. This happens when your back progress fro being curved to twisted.

This condition is known as Kyphosis. ( Cloe, 2) A severe case of scoliosis can cause a twist on the spine so that the rib cage is altered. Cloe, 2) This rib cage protects our heart and lunges. Once the rib cage is altered, it can prevent the lungs from expanding which makes it harder to breath. Scoliosis can also have an effect on the gait ( walk ) of people. This happens ainly because your hips are at different levels, which is caused by scoliosis. This gives people a limited range in motion when they walk, which leads them to have more energy when they walk and have a stiffer walk than normal. ( Cloe, 2) The reason these misalignments in the body happens is, because the bones in the spine have rotated, which causes the body to lean to one side to compensate due to the curve in the spine. Bodeeb, 1 )

The most significant effect of scoliosis is loss of height. ( Bodeeb, 2) For many people, they can lose up to 6″ in height. There are some possible treatments for scoliosis. If you are a child and have scoliosis, you are usually going to the doctors every four to six months to keep your scoliosis in check. The treatment most commonly used for children are braces. The brace is used when you have a spinal curve degree between 25 and 40 degrees, and you are still growing. Though the brace can’t actually reverse the damages of scoliosis, it can help to prevent it from getting worse. (Osteoarthritis Health Center Scoliosis, 2) Another option is surgery.

If your curve is between 40 and 50 degrees, you are considered for surgery. The surgery cannot straighten he curve all the way, but it can get it pretty close to normal. In the procedure, metallic implants are used to correct some of the curvature and makes sure it is in the correct position until the bone graft can be placed. The bone graft creates a rigid infusion within the area of the curve. It is most commonly referred to as spinal fusion because it joins the vertebrae together. ( Osteoarthritis Health Center Scoliosis, 3) It is also highly recommended that people with scoliosis be physically active in case they have the surgery. This can help speed the recovery process along, but also it is good for your body.