Structure of main Body Systems: Our body is made up of many different systems which help us to keep alive. Without these systems our organs would not be able to functions at all. There are 10 main systems in our body which include the cardiovascular system, the digestive system, the renal system, the nervous system, the reproductive system, the immune system, the respiratory system, the lymphatic system, the muscular -skeletal system and lastly the endocrine system.
Each of these systems has their own functions and purpose Cardiovascular System- The cardiovascular system is made up of the heart, blood vessels, arteries, capillaries and veins. The cardiovascular system makes up a network which helps to deliver blood to all the tissues in our body. Each heartbeat pumps blood around our body, carrying necessary nutrients needed for our body to be absorbed and oxygen to the cells within our body. Approximately 5 litres of blood in our body travels at the speed at speed of nearly a distance of 60,000 miles.
The blood goes through our blood vessels which branch out in our body which are linked to our organs and other body part. The cardiovascular system is almost like our life line, without this system we would be dead as it is one of the main systems that help our body to functions properly. The cardiovascular system has two divided systems called the pulmonary circulation and the systemic circulation. The pulmonary circuit helps to carry the blood to the lungs in order to be oxygenated, once that happens; it is carried back to the heart.
The carbon dioxide is removed from the blood and taken by the haemoglobin in the red blood cells; this takes place in the lungs. The systemic circuit helps carry blood the body, helping to deliver the oxygen and return the de-oxygenated blood back to heart. The blood also carries away any wastes and nutrients. There are three main blood vessels called arteries, veins and capillaries. The functions of the arteries are to carry away oxygenated blood from the heart, have thick muscular walls and contain blood under a very high pressure.
The function of the veins is to carry de-oxygenated blood to the heart. The veins have valves which help avoid the risk of the blood flowing backwards. The veins contain blood of a lower pressure than the arteries. The capillaries are found in our muscles and lungs. The capillaries help with gas exchange, when this takes place without body the oxygen passes through the capillary wall which leads into the tissue’s, which then passes carbon dioxide from the tissue into our blood. Digestive System- The digestive system is a group of organs that work together in order to make a particular function.
The purpose of the digestive system is to convert the food we eat into energy and also take the nutrients that is needed to feed our body. The organs that are part of the digestive system are the teeth, the tongue, salivary gland, gall bladder, the liver, large intestine and lastly the pancreas. To provide the energy and the right nutrients for the body, there are six main functions that take place during the process of digesting food which is ingestion, secretion, mixing & movement, digestion, absorption and excretion.
The digestion begins from the mouth; it actually starts right before we take a bite into our food. The mouth begins to produce saliva which causes the mouth to water, when tasting the food the saliva increases. Once you begin to chew and start to break down the food into smaller pieces, more saliva is produced which helps the body to be able to process and absorb in order to digest. The throat which is also known as pharynx receives the food from the mouth which then branches out to the esophagus which carries the food to the stomach.
The esophagus is a muscular tube from the pharynx which is located near the trachea. The trachea is the wind pipe that is connected to the larynx. After the food has travelled down it then goes into the stomach. It then passed through the valve which is passage that opens and closes; the valve lets the food go down through to the small intestine. The main function of the small intestine is to absorb nutrients and minerals from the food. Villi which are found in the walls of the intestine folds over to create a bigger surface area so it’s able to absorb more nutrients from the food being digested.
The Villi then passes the nutrients into the blood stream. From the small intestine the food is passed on to the large intestine which is also called colon. The large intestine is the final process of the digestive system. The undigested food enters the large intestine from the small intestine. The large intestine than absorbs the water that is used in the digestive system and then eliminates the foods and fibre was not digested. The food waste then hardens and forms into faeces which then are excreted through the anus.
Renal System- The renal system also known as the urinary system is made up of our kidney, bladder, urethra and ureters. The renal system has many different functions which include getting ride of liquid wastes from blood in the form of urine, stabilizing and balancing salt levels and other substances in the blood. The renal system also helps with the production of erythropoietin which is a hormone that helps form red blood cells. The kidneys help remove urea from our blood through using little filter units known as nephrons.
The renal system helps to produce, store and eliminate urine from our body. The kidney and renal system help to keep chemicals which are needed such as sodium and potassium and water when eliminating other waste liquids which are not needed by the body but also helps to keep a balance, ensuring the body has the right amount. The urea which is the liquid waste is produced when digesting foods containing protein which is found is meat. These proteins are broken down in the body, the urea then is carried into the blood stream into the kidneys.
This is where its removed with the water and other wastes which are not required by the body and become to form urine which we then let out when using the toilet to pee. Nervous System- The nervous system is split up into two. The nervous system includes:; Central nerve system (CNS) & Peripheral nerve system (PNS). The central nerve system is the centre of the body and is in control off taking is sensory information, organising data then provides direction for the motor output to the rest of the body. The CNS is made of three things the brain, the brain stem and spinal cord.
The three main functions of the CNS is gathering, synthesizing and responding. One of the main functions of PNS is to connect the CNS to all the organs and limbs in our body as a source of communication which is going back and forth from the brain and extremities. Reproductive System- the reproductive system is made up of different sex organs which work together for sexual reproduction. Many different substances included hormones, fluids and pheromones are a few important elements of the reproductive system.
The female reproductive is made of the vagina, womb (uterus), fallopian tubes and the ovaries. The vagina is a muscular canal which extends from the womb to the genitals. The male reproductive system includes different sexual organs such as scrotum, testes, spertamic ducts, and sex glands and finally the penis. The organs work together to produce sperm and other things to produce the semen. Immune System- the immune system is made up of different cells, tissues and organs.
These organs and parts of the body to work together in order to protect the body. ts helps to keep the body functioning and protecting the body from infections and disease as that is one of the functions of the immune system, to fight of infections and keep the body strong. The white blood cells that are in different parts of your body such as the bone marrow, the spleen and your stomach are known as leukocytes they are germ fighting cells, these are part of the immune system. The Respiratory System- there are two main function of the respiratory system one is to pass oxygen around all parts of the body this is done via inhaling and the other is to remove the carbon dioxide via exhaling.
The respiratory system is formed by a group of tissues and organs within the body which enable you to breathe. The tissues and organs which are a part of the system are the lungs, muscles and blood vessels. Lymphatic System- The lymphatic system consists of thin tubes and lymph nodes which run throughout the whole body. The thin tubes are called lymph vessels. The lymphatic system has many different functions, its helps with the removal of a certain fluid from tissues. It also absorbs fatty acids and transports the facts as chyle which is milky fluid containing fat, from the digestive system.
The lymphatic system also helps to transport white blood from to and from the lymph nodes in our body to ours bones. Lymph nodes can be found through the body, they are found in the armpits, groin area and neck. Musculo-skeletal System- the skeleton and bones in our body helps to maintain the structure and posture of our body as well as helping us to keep strong and to grow when developing. The skeleton is made of the axial skeleton and the appendicular skeleton. When two or more bones meet one another, they are known as a joint, an example of a joint would be elbow.
Joints are made up of fibrous tissue which helps the bones and joints to stay in place but are still able to move as our bones are joint with cartilage, allowing us to move more freely and move and react the way we do. The muscle fibres are tied together allowing them to form muscles which are able to pull and push bones in different positions and directions with the use of contraction. This particular system is contains muscles, bones, ligaments and tendons with in our body. Without these we would not be able to move the way we do, or be able to stand. We have 206 bones in our body and there are 640 skeletal muscles within our body.
We contain the exact same muscle on both the left and right side of our body. Endocrine System- this system contains different glands which help produce hormones which help with the regulation of growth, development, metabolism, tissue function, reproduction, sleep, mood and sexual function. There are endocrine glands located in our bodies and their job is to secrete their hormones into the blood. The major glands which include the pituitary gland, pancreas, ovaries, pineal gland, testes, thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, adrenal gland and lastly hypothalamus. All these glands help with the way we feel or our health or our moods.