Carmen. 2000. “Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519). ” In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art. http://www. metmuseum. org/toah/hd/leon/hd_leon. htm The author begins this essay by a summary of Leonardo da Vinci life and work experience. Talking about his drawings and scientific contributions that are keep in his notebooks because most of them were not finish, explaining the locations of Leonardo’s work and living giving him credit for being not just an incredible artist but also a great inventor.
Then the author starts referring to “The Last Supper” as a master piece explaining a little bit of the process to making it. Finally, by explaining the motives and inspiration that Leonardo da Vinci had for painting the moment behind the painting situations of Christ telling his apostles that one of them will betray him and the sense of order on the scene that Leonardo da Vinci put in the painting and differences like placing Judas in the opposite of the table who was traditionally painted. Wasserman. 2007. “Rethinking Leonardo da Vinci’s “Last Supper””. Journal of Artibus et Historiae. Vol 28, No. 55 pp. 23-35 In this journal the author get in to detail of the two main moments of the Passover meal: the initial moment when Christ announces to the apostles that one will betray him and when asked for the identity of the traitor.
Wasserman quoting of Mathew 26: 21-28 declare the experience of this moment and what Christ talks to his apostles about the wine and bread. hem the author expresses two different arguments of the symbolism of Judas, the other apostles, and Christ when reaching for the wine glass and the difference between them indicating it in the painting by the reaching for the glass with their hands, proposing that Christ try to reach the wine glass with the right hand simultaneously to Judas with the left hand. The other argument is directed that Christ’s arm blocks directly and exclusively to the wine glass and no access to the bread dish. -The Kripke Center. 2009. “Depicting the Bread of the Last Supper”. Journal of Religion and Society.
Vol. 11 pp 1-14 In this journal the author expresses the religious importance of the bread has a symbol of Christian art relating both to Christ’s prediction of his betrayal and to his institution. Explaining the change in the artistic representation of the bread during the Renaissance period, but not only focusing on the bread because other representations of the Last Supper even change the table that sometimes it’s round, square, U-shaped, or rectangular. This journal focuses more on the symbolism of the objects and representation in The Last Supper for Christianity.
Finally, the author made the readers understand from where the painting of Leonardo da Vinci came from of the Dominican refectory of Santa Maria delle Grazie in Milan and expressing the patrons and skills that the artist put in the painting and the Florentine traditions. In conclusion, the journal expresses the institution of the Eucharist symbolistic ideas of the representations of the Last Supper in general and from different point of views and different artist and eras. -Paoletti, Radke. 1997. “Art in Renaissance Italy”. Laurence King Publishing. Pag 371.
Leonardo da Vinci work in The Last Supper from 1495 to 1497 executed in tempera and oil on two layers of plaster over extended preparation of plaster, which caused technical problems that led to its rapid deterioration. The Last Supper has also had important conservation issues and has been restored several times seeing a gradual attenuation of the typical features Leonardo painting. The theme of the Last Supper was traditionally intended to decorate the refectories, but Leonardo change it with a new dramatic sense, that has made this work one of the most memorable images of Western art.
By choosing the time after Christ announced that one of his disciples would betray him, Leonardo da Vinci represents the confusion of the apostles and doubts about themselves, reflecting their hectic reactions, available through their gestures and body postures. The painting is based on John 13:21. -McCouat. 2012. “On the Trail of the Last Supper”. Journal of Art and Society. Pag 1-17 This article begins giving the reader a history of why the Christian belief of the Last Supper and how in a Jewish feast celebration that pass it to Christianity.
The article covers images of The Last Supper from different countries and talks about the difference in culture with the influences that give the artist to paint Christ last day and similarities of the religion that the artist is part of. When the author start to talk about Leonardo da Vinci and his painting of The Last Supper it expresses his though of how the artist included more of a European look to the painting than Jewish. Even with the shape of the table because before the 12th century the table in paintings of The Last Supper was round or in a D-Shape also contrasting with the Jewish culture of the
Passover meals. In conclusion, the author points about the cultural differences that Leonardo made to the painting, but understanding the benefices and the reasons for being the way it is. -Polzer. 2011. Reflections on Leonardo’s “Last Supper” Artibus et Historiae Vol. 32, No. 63: 9-37. In this article the author begins by expressing the impact in culture and history that the painting of Leonardo da Vinci “The Last Supper” had from the moment it was created and the significance for the High Renaissance Italian art expressing its realism and dramatic power to the viewer of the painting.
It also states the many times the painting had to be restored and moved making it harder to investigates Leonardo’s creative process and the meaning behind every aspect of the painting; however, what can be found are complex layers of meaning that do not express the moment when Christ confess to his apostles that one of them was going to betray him. Finally, the author talks about the artistic and dramatic narrative that the painting have putting a piece of history and literature in image and the interaction of Christ and his apostles with a different emotional connection with all of them. -Landrus. 2016.
The Proportions of Leonardo’s Last Supper”. Academia. http://www. academia. edu/2211382/The_Proportions_of_Leonardos_Last_Supper. Pag: 1-25 In this article the writer gets in more detailed description of Leonardo’s Last Supper creative process from the point of view of an specialist of the working methods of the artist beginning by giving the reader a sense of understanding of what was happening in Leonardo’s mind before the creation of the painting taking the lector step by step of the decisions that were took for The Last Supper even the preoccupations the Leonardo may had have at the time of the painting.
Landrus goes in detailed by giving the reader measurements of every aspect of the painting and explains the artistic reasons for these dimensions touching an aspect that I didn’t realize until pointing out, the three-dimensional illusion of The Last Supper and the layers and feelings of depth. In conclusion, the author expresses an interesting point of view for the lector finding the engineering and the scientific aspect of the painting that I’m sure any artist has to go through in way that we can relate to Leonardo as a painter and a person and not just like a genius. -Veltman. 2008. “Leonardo da
Vinci: A Review”. Journal of The MIT Press. Vol. 41, No. 4 pp. 381-388. In this article we get more in touch with the life of the artist during the 20th century before The Last Supper finding his fascination with different types of paintings and art form that led to a nearly comprehensive understanding of his own art. Expressing the hardness of Leonardo after the awareness has a scientist and his reputation has a genius who never finished anything; furthermore, giving substantial contributions in the domains of physics, mechanics, optics, perspective, and medicine by the 20th century.
Understanding how Leonardo worked and the studies of his notebooks from the tiny and everyday carry notebooks to the two conjecture and main notebooks that he carried in his house, one been about world of nature, animals, and human beings and the other focusing on the man-made world: machines, fortification, inventions, etc. The notebooks became largely acclaim and a main source of research to understand him and his work also understanding the aspects of his trips and cultures knowledge that the artist possessed and put into painting. -Gallone. 2005. I blu di Leonardo nell’Ultima Cena”. Arte Lombarda. Nuova serie, No. 145 pp. 73-75. In this note presents the results of the analytic study of the samples taken from Leonardo da Vinci’s Last Supper last restoration beginning in 1979 and finishing in May 1999 by Pinin Brambilla and gave the opportunity to analyze the chemical-physical techniques of the colors that Leonardo used also to discover certain particularities and surprises that the distribution of the pigments in the painting and the thickness of the layers or the particle size that were found in this restoration.
Showing to the lector Leonardo’s technique to obtain a vast range of chromatic tones, using natural ultramarine and azurite pointing put the contrast from Christ’s mantle high percentages of lapis lazuli to Judas’s mantle only been azurite. In conclusion, the article focuses more on the representation of the colors, the contrast of them, and the technique the artist used to give a living filling in the painting and representing the differences of certain significance in the colors; for example, the lapis lazuli was usually reserved for the clothes of the most important figures for its preciousness and beauty. -Haupt. 1921. The Last Supper”. Journal of Biblical Literature. Vol. 40, No. 3/4. Pp 178-180
In this journal the author is determine to made the reader understand the reality of how Christ’s Last Supper would had really happen and pointing out Leonardo’s Last Supper as an example of what culture, ideas, and preferences affect the result of what it is typical belief to all Christians and the rest of the world to be the actual representation of the scene. Haupt try to get more in detailed on how the people in that era would actually sit for a feast and how the position of the apostles and Christ it is completely different of what Leonardo painted.
According to Roman fashion, there would have been three couches on three sides of a square table and Christ would had seated on the left couch on the left side giving the understanding that two couches would have 4 people and one in the middle with five. Finally, Haupt not just uses typical Roman fashion to picture this scene but also quotes and gives parts of the bible that refer to this moment trying to change the idea that Leonardo’s painting installed in our minds of this occasion.