The Forensic science is the scientific method used for investigating and detecting crime. Forensic scientists collect, preserve, analyze and report on scientific evidence found at the scene of a crime or in connection with another criminal act. Forensic Science was born around 200 years ago by Italian scientist Alessandro Volt27). Forensic science is still a developing field and it has changed a lot since the first use of Forensic science in early 19th century.
The Forensic science use big data and statistics for solving crime nowadays: Forensic scientists can create complex mathematical models to predict where criminals will commit crimes next and examine evidence from large groups of people to find the culprits, according to the Forensic scientists Anna-Lisa Vollmer and Klaus Kehl of Linkoping University in Sweden. The Forensic science isn’t an exact science because it depends on subjective human decisions during its investigation processes (e. . , collecting evidence, making observations… ).
This is why Forensic science has to be more accurate than other sciences that are based on “hard facts” like Physics or Chemistry. Forensic scientists will always have to deal with probabilities when they investigate a crime; Forensic science cannot give 100% guarantees about its results. Forensic scientists use their knowledge of mathematics, chemistry, biology, microbiology and physics at every step of solving a crime scene.
Forensic evidence can provide strong evidence for concluding what happened during a crime but not who did it. Forensic scientists can also be called as Forensic experts in Forensic science. Forensic science has become a separate discipline only since the early 19th century when heavily used in solving crime cases, before that Forensic science was just a branch of medicine and had nothing to do with law. The first Forensic science institute was founded by German Physician Johann Christian August Heinroth at University Leipzig under the name Forensic Medicine.
Forensic Science started growing big after 1828 when French physician Alexandre Lacassagne and his student Edmond Locard established the first modern Forensic science laboratory at University Lyon, France for studying blood stains on clothes and other objects. A few years later, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle had made Sherlock Holmes use forensic evidence many times in his stories. Forensic science has become an important tool in solving crimes, with Forensic scientists being called upon to provide expert witness testimony in many legal cases.
Forensic scientists have also been involved in assessing the safety of many U. S. products and practices such as analyzing crime-related DNA evidence. Forensic science is always related to law because Forensic scientists gather evidences at crime scene or from criminal activity which are valid enough to be used by judges or lawyers for prosecuting criminals in trial courts or by investigating agencies during investigations of crimes. But for this, Forensic science must follow certain rules so that Forensic scientist doesn’t risk losing credibility when preparing reports for use in court proceedings
Forensic Pathologist Forensic pathologists are doctors who study the changes that occur in bodily tissues and fluids during the postmortem (after death) period, and how these changes relate to disease and death Forensic pathologists also study whether a death is due to natural causes, accident, suicide or homicide Forensic pathology is divided into two branches: Forensic pathology which deals with medical legal autopsies Forensic toxicology which deals with identifying poisons in cases of suspected drug related deaths
Forensic science is an applied science that has application in many fields such as law enforcement, security issues and archaeology. Forensic scientists use scientific methods to solve criminal cases by examining clues left at crime scenes such as fingerprinting evidence; blood splatters; soil types found in tire treads; fragments from bullets in order to identify suspects.
Forensic scientists collect and analyze biological materials such as blood, semen or saliva to determine the body’s physical traits Forensic scientists also may examine soil, glass, fire debris, weapons fragments and many other materials found at crime scenes Forensic scientists are usually either criminalists whose work focuses on current cases or medical examiners who investigate sudden, violent or unexplained deaths Forensic science can include disciplines such as chemistry; genetics; trace evidence analysis; questioned document examination; digital evidence examination.
Forensic science is a broad field that is the application of science to criminal and civil laws. Forensic scientists can be found in laboratories in private sector, law enforcement, federal/state/county agencies, universities, hospitals and medical colleges. Forensic science has evolved over time which advanced technology making it possible for more efficient practices. Forensic science can be divided into different categories with each category having their own specific duties during the course of an investigation.
Forensic chemistry deals with chemical analysis used to identify unknown samples. Forensic biology deals with biochemistry techniques used to focus on biological evidence at crime scene or autopsy room. Forensic toxicology deals with drug evaluation tests involving blood specimens or postmortem material (tissues) looking for poisonous substances which could have contributed to death of the victim. Forensic pathology is the study of human body in reference to medical sciences. Forensic anthropology deals with skeletal remains examining age, sex, ancestry and stature of unidentified dead.
Forensic meteorology deals with atmospheric science application during an investigation like studying weather patterns or wind direction which could affect where evidence may be located. Forensic engineering deals with accident reconstruction to determine how an incident took place. Forensic firearms examination deals with tool marks identification on bullets that matches a certain gun (tool). Forensic entomology deals with evaluation of insects at crime scene that can identify postmortem interval (time since death) or even what type of habitat the victim was exposed to before death occurred.
Forensic scientists not only work along side law enforcement officers but they are required to testify in court. Forensic science conclusions may vary depending on the laboratory it was performed. Forensic science does not solve crimes; they only provides supporting measure to help investigators figure out who, what, why and how an incident occurred. Forensic evidence can be biased if an investigator wants a specific result that would implicate or link the suspect to the crime which may taint results of testing done by forensic scientists.
Forensic science ethical standards are governed by their code of ethics. Forensic scientists must be impartial during testing and analysis, provide accurate results and maintain confidentiality throughout the process of gathering evidence which is used as testimony during trial proceedings. Forensic scientists should report any potential misconduct or impropriety involving other forensic scientists work which could jeopardize their credibility as professional experts . Forensic scientists are typically categorized as generalist or specialist.
Forensic science is a broad field that covers multiple areas of expertise requiring knowledge, skills and abilities to produce accurate analysis dependent on each category it falls under. Forensic science has played a vital role in court room proceedings whether it be determining guilt or innocence of a defendant which has evolved over time with the advancement of technology making it possible for more efficient practices. Forensic science experts provide testimony based on their expertise and experience as forensic scientists during legal proceedings which must meet certain requirements to testify as an expert witness.