Measles Research Paper

Measles Is severe and highly infectious respiratory disease that also manifest itself as a distinctive skin rash during childhood. Adults can also contract the disease but it is rare. Left untreated, measles can cause various complications and become deadly. Some complications include pneumonia, bronchitis and croup – infections of the airways and lungs. There are many signs and symptoms to help detect the disease Measles is a viral infection of the respiratory system and a very contagious disease that can spread through contact with infected mucus and saliva.

Although there is no cure for measles there are preventative measure as in vaccinations. Measles Measles is a severe and highly infectious respiratory disease that also manifest its self as a distinctive skin rash. There are two types of measles, each caused by a different virus. Measles are mostly identified and diagnosed by recognition of the distinctive red skin rash, but other symptoms include: cough, fever, red eyes, light sensitivity, muscle aches, runny nose, sore throat and white spots inside the mouth.

Immunization are a very important aspect when it comes to preventing measles being that there is no cure; therefore, vaccinations should be required worldwide History of measles The history of measles: Measles were first discovered by a Persian doctor name, Abu Bakr Muhammad Ibn Zakariyya alRazi in the 9th century. He published the first written accounts of the disease. Later in 1757 a physician name Francis Home than demonstrated that Measles disease was caused by a communicable agent in the blood of those infected.

In 1912, measles became a nationally recognized disease in the United States, requiring U. S. healthcare providers and laboratories to report all diagnosed cases. In the first decade of reporting, an average of 6,000 measles-related deaths were reported each year. 1953 is when the measles vaccine became available. Most children in that decade was diagnosed with measles by the time they were 15 years of age. It is estimated 3 to 4 million people in the United States were infected each year. Also, each year an estimated 400 to 500 people died, 48,000 were hospitalized, and 4,000 suffered encephalitis (swelling of the brain) from measles.

Around 1963 the mass number of measles cases dropped tremendously by 99 percent. It was between 1985 and 1988 that researchers found that many measles cases had occurred in children who had been vaccinated with the measles vaccine. This was particularly noted in children who received only one dose. These children were not always protected from the disease. This led to the recommendation of a second dose.

Cause of measles When most people use the term measles, they are referring to the rubeola virus which causes “red measles,” also known as “hard measles” or just “measles. Most people recover without problems, rubeola can lead to pneumonia or inflammation of the brain (encephalitis). Measles are cause by infection with the rubeola virus, but most people are unaware that there are two types of measles: rubeola and Rubella each caused by a different virus. The rubella virus causes “German measles. German measles is a milder disease than red measles. The virus can cause birth defects if an infected pregnant woman passes the virus to her unborn child Signs and symptoms of measles Signs and symptoms of measles are very important when it comes to detecting the disease.

The infection occurs in sequential stages over a period of two to three weeks. Infection and incubation. For the first 10 to 14 days after you’re infected, the measles virus incubates. You have no signs or symptoms of measles during this time. Nonspecific signs and symptoms. Measles typically begins with a mild to moderate fever, often accompanied by a persistent cough, runny nose, inflamed eyes (conjunctivitis) and sore throat. This relatively mild illness may last two or three days. Acute illness and rash.

The rash consists of small red spots, some of which are slightly raised. Spots and bumps in tight clusters give the skin a splotchy red appearance. The face breaks out first, particularly behind the ears and along the hairline. Over the next few days, the rash spreads down the arms and trunk, then over the thighs, lower legs and feet. At the same time, fever rises sharply, often as high as 104 to 105. 8 F (40 to 41 C). The measles rash gradually recedes, fading first from the face and last from the thighs and feet. Communicable period.

A person with measles can spread the virus to others for about eight days, starting four days before the rash appears and ending when the rash has been present for four days. Immunizations Vaccination has significantly reduced the number of cases in the United States, although isolated outbreaks continue to occur. Measles has been occurring more frequently in recent years due to an increased number of vaccine refusal. Your doctor can usually diagnose measles based on the disease’s characteristic rash as well as a small, bluish-white spot on a bright red background — Koplik’s spot — on the inside lining of the cheek.

If necessary, a blood test can confirm whether the rash is truly measles. No treatment can get rid of an established measles infection. However, some measures can be taken to protect vulnerable individuals who have been exposed to the virus. Post-exposure vaccination. Nonimmunized people, including infants, may be given the measles vaccination within 72 hours of exposure to the measles virus to provide protection against the disease. If measles still develops, the illness usually has milder symptoms and lasts for a shorter time. Immune serum globulin.

Pregnant women, infants and people with weakened immune systems who are exposed to the virus may receive an injection of proteins (antibodies) called immune serum globulin. When given within six days of exposure to the virus, these antibodies can prevent measles or make symptoms less severe. Measles can be prevented with vaccination. Children should receive two doses of MMR: 1st dose: 12 through 15 months ,2nd dose: 4 through 6 years. MMRV vaccine is licensed for children 12 months to 12 years old and may be used in place of MMR vaccine if varicella vaccination is also needed.

A health care provider can help decide which vaccine to use. MMR vaccine is very safe and effective. MMR vaccine is the best way to protect children against measles and to prevent them from spreading the disease to others. Anyone born during or after 1957, who has never had measles or has never been vaccinated, is at risk for measles. They should get at least one dose of the MMR vaccine. Two doses are recommended for adults at increased risk, such as students in college, trade school, and training programs, international travelers, and health care professionals.

Recommendations If you are not sure if you are protected against measles, first try to find your vaccination records or documentation of measles immunity. If you do not have written documentation of measles immunity, you should get MMR vaccine. Contact a doctor immediately if you suspect you have measles. If you have not received a measles vaccine and you meet an infected person, visit your doctor to receive a measles vaccine within 72 hours of contact to prevent infection. You can also prevent an infection with a dose of immunoglobulin taken within six days of contact with an infected person.