Research Paper On Heart Disease

According to hrsonline. org, “In the United States alone there are 5 million people with a heart disease. Every year 350,000 people die from a coronary disease. ” A coronary disease (heart disease) is several conditions in which prevent the heart from completing its functions and affects the structures of the heart (heart. org 3). A few of these diseases are cardiomyopathy, coronary heart disease, hypertension, and tachycardia. These conditions are only a few of a hundred possibilities that can go wrong with the heart.

The differences in the diseases is how they affect the heart and what part of the heart is targeted to malfunction. Other differences may include how they change a person’s lifestyle as well as the treatment patients may need. The symptoms of the disease will vary with the individual, however, the outcome of the disease can be the same. The average life expectancy with a heat disease can be shortened by 10-15 years (webmd. com 2). Heart disease can be treated and reversed, bringing a person back to normal health. Yet, all of these diseases can result in death as well. Normal Heart: Just as hrsonline. rg stated, “A normal healthy heart is a fist sized muscle that pumps blood 24 hours a day, 365 days a year, without rest. The heart is a part of the circulatory system which contains the heart, lungs and the blood vessels (Cohen 3).

The cardiovascular system contributes to the homeostasis of other body systems by the transporting and distributing blood throughout the body to deliver materials (such as oxygen, nutrients, and hormones) and carry away waste. The structures involved in these important task are blood vessels, which form a closed system of tubes that carries blood away from the heart, ransports it to the tissues of the body, and then treturns to the heart. The five main types of blood vessels are arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins. Arteries, which are red and carry blood away from the heart to other organs. Smaller arteries are called arterioles. As arterioles enter a tissue, they branch into numerous tiny vessels called capillaries. Groups of capillaries with in a tissue reunite to form small veins called venules. Veins, which are blue, are the blood vessels that carry blood from the tissue to the heart. However, the pulmonary arteries and veins are revised.

The arteries are blue and the veins led due to the oxygens circulation. There are four chambers in the heart. The right atrium, right vertical, left atrium, and the left ventricle. These four chambers are connected by valves. They allow blood to move forward and resent it form flowing backwards. What divides the right and left side of the flowing of the heart is a wall of muscle called the terventricular septum. The superior vena cava and inferior vena cava are on the right side of the heart that drains blood from the lower body. The two vena cavae empty their blood into the right atrium.

The blood then flows throughout the tricuspid valve to the right atrium following the pulmonary valve then the lungs where the blood is oxygenated. After the blood is oxygenated if flows to the left atrium to the mitral bicuspid valve then to the ventricle where it flows to the aorta then travels through the either the brachiocephalic, carotid, sub Davian or descending aorta (Dickerson 802), In accordance with Campbell, “A complete sequence of filling and pumping is called the cardiac cycle”. When the heart beats it relaxes and contracts pumping blood. This is known as blood pressure.

The average healthy blood pressure is 80 over 120. The top number is called the systolic number. This is when the heart contracts and fills the ventricles with blood. The bottom number is called diastolic, this is when the heart is relaxed (Cohen 19). Cardiomyopathy: One of many heart diseases is cardiomyopathy. This disease refers to the heart muscle. The structure of the heart becomes enlarged, thick, or rigid. As this disease progresses the heart struggles to pump blood. The heart weakens and fails to maintain a normal rhythm. Irregular heartbeats are called arrhythmias. The National Institute of health. gov).

In the series of these events this can lead to heart failure, which causes fluid buildup in the lungs, abdomen, and feet or legs due to blood backing up to enter the heart (heart failure matters. org). There are various causes, signs, and symptoms for cardiomyopathy. Cardiomyopathy can affect people of all ages, however the age can determine the type of cardiomyopathy. The types are the following: hyperopic cardiomyopathy, dilated cardiomyopathy, arrythmogenic right ventricle dysplasia, and unclassified cardiomyopathy. This disease can be acquired or inherited.

In treatment, the muscle tissue in the hearts replaced with scar tissue, although, this specific treatment is rare. And there are other simple treatments (National Institution of health. gov). Coronary Heath Disease: Secondly, there is coronary heart disease (CHD). CHD is a circulatory disease that is caused by a coronary arteries narrowing, this can lead to a heart attack and metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of disorders. When the heart begins to fail and blood is not being sufficiently pumped, the cells in the body begin to die (Cohen 11).

Coronary heart disease is the moth common heart disease. The symptoms may include illness check pain recent cauterization, arrhythmogenic, and severe high blood pressure (Cohen 40). A few risk factors may be increasing age, race, gender, smoking, and birth control pills. There are dozens of tests to diagnose this disorder along with several treatments. CHD is usually an acquired disease. Hypertension: Thirdly, there is hypertension. This disease is when the blood pressure is 140/90 or higher. Hypertension is also a circulatory disease. Hypertension causes the heart to become larger and thicker, weakening the heart.

This makes the heart unable to pump the blood and oxygen to the body (Medical News Today. com 4). According to Medical News Today, “having high blood pressure for a short amount of time is a normal to many situations. However a systolic reading of 180 mm Hg or higher or a diastolic reading of 110 mm Hg or higher could be a sign of hypertensive crisis”. When the blood pressure is high it causes the blood to push against the walls of blood vessels. This could cause significant damage. With age blood pressure steadily increases. And the arteries become stiff and narrow.

Throughout the day, blood pressure will vary, lowering while you sleep and rises when you awake. It also rises due to excitement, anxiety, and physical activity. There are two types of hypertension, primary hypertension and secondary hypertension. Primary does not have a specific cause. Yet multiple factors are the result of this. Secondary hypertension does have specific causes. They are secondary to another problem. Hypertension has affected nearly 75 million people in the U. S. (Medial News Today. com 7). Tachycardia: Lastly, tachycardia, this is when the heart rate is greater than a 100 beats per minute.

Tachycardia can occur in either the atriums or ventricles of the heart. The three types of tachycardia are atrial or supraventricular or tachycardia (SVT, sinus tachycardia and ventricular tachycardia). Signs of this disease are dizziness and fluttering in the chest. When the heart beats at elevated rates, the heart fails to pump oxygen and blood to the body. There are limited treatments for tachycardia (Medtronic. com 3). Heart disease: Heart disease attack the heart either being a circulatory disease or a structural disease of the heart.

Every heart disease leads to the heart failing and causes the body to not sufficiently get enough nutrients. When these diseases occur they can cause other conditions to happen such as hart attacks, sudden cardiac arrest, or sudden cardia death. Heart attack symptoms are uncomfortable pressure in your chest, tightness and fullness. The chest pains of heart attacks will last 30 minutes to several hours. Sudden cardia arrests (SCA) occurs when the heart stops beating. This is abrupt and without warning. Blood will then stop its flow and vital organ will begin to shut down.

Sudden cardia death the number one that people die from CHD. SCD is abrupt and complete loss of the heart function, this is also known as cardiac arrest. When any heart disease occurs your body will try to adapt and compensate for the failing and weakened heart. Only for a limited time will this work, and the long term this will make the heart weaker. Ways to prevent heart disease is exercising, eating healthy, and limited alcoholic and caffeine intake, limit salt intake, and maintaining a good source of potassium and calcium and magnesium (Heart Failures Matter. org 2).