Police have been around since the early 1800’s since Billy the Kid and Pat Garrett had there go arounds with brawls and shooting each other. Now, police have been around for a long time and have progressed since then and still are but eventually they will end their legacy one day but hopefully created? June 5th, 1850 was a date to remember because one of the most known cops was born by the name Patt Garrett. Patt Garrett was a lawman who was known for killing the notorious BIlly the KId on July 14th, 1881 in Fort Sumner, New Mexico.
Patt Garrett was once a member of Billy the Kids gang. The gang was known as the Lincoln County Regulators. The Regulators were formed out of numerous small ranch owners and cowboys in the Lincoln, New Mexico area. Many of those who became best known as “Regulators” had a long history with one another previously. William Bonney, aka Billy the Kid, would become the best known, most likely due to the notoriety of his name, which arose because news accounts attached his name to everything the Regulators did.
The Lincoln County War brought him to the front, but several of the other Regulators were actually the driving force behind the events, and had a history of killing alongside one another prior to the war. On November 2, 1880, Pat Garrett was elected Sheriff of Lincoln County, New Mexico having defeated incumbent Sheriff George Kimball by a vote of 320 to 179. Although Garrett’s term wouldn’t begin until January 1, 1881, he was eager to capture the fugitive William Bonney, better known as “Billy the Kid,” and got Sheriff Kimball to appoint him as a deputy sheriff for the remainder of Kimball’s term.
Garrett was further aided when he obtained a deputy U. S. Marshal’s commission, which allowed him to pursue the Kid across county lines. Garrett and his posse stormed the Dedrick ranch at Bosque Grande on November 30, 1880. They expected to find the Kid there, but only succeeded in capturing John Joshua Webb, who had been charged with murder, along with an accused horse thief named George Davis. Garrett turned Webb and Davis over to the sheriff of San Miguel County a few days later, and moved on to the settlement of Puerto la , where a local tough named Mariano Leiva picked a fight with Garrett, who shot Leiva in the shoulder.
On December 19, 1880, Billy the Kid, Charlie Bowdre, Tom Pickett, Billy Wilson and Tom O’Folliard rode into Fort Sumner. Lying in wait were deputy Garrett and his posse. Mistaking O’Folliard for the Kid, Garrett’s men opened fire and killed O’Folliard; Billy the Kid and the others escaped unharmed. Three days later, Garrett’s posse cornered the Kid and his companions at a spot called Stinking Springs. They killed one man and captured the others, including Billy the Kid. On April 15, 1881, Billy the Kid was sentenced to hang by Judge Warren Bristol, but he escaped thirteen days later.
On July 14, 1881, Garrett visited Fort Sumner to question a friend of the Kid’s about his whereabouts and learned the Kid was staying with a mutual friend, Pedro Menard “Pete” Maxwell. Around midnight, Garrett went to Maxwell’s house. The Kid was asleep in another part of the house, but woke up in the middle of the night and entered Maxwell’s bedroom, where Garrett was standing in the shadows. The Kid didn’t recognize the man standing in the dark. He asked him, repeatedly, “? Quien es” (Who is it? )? , and Garrett replied by shooting at him twice] The first shot hit the Kid in the chest just above the heart, killing him.
When were police created When were police created? The first city police services were established in Philadelphia in 1751, Richmond, Virginia in 1807, Boston in 1838, and New York in 1845. The U. S. Secret Service was founded in 1865 and was for some time the main investigative body for the federal government. The development of policing in the United States closely followed the development of policing in England. In the early colonies policing took two forms. Both informal and communal, which is referred to as the “Watch,” or private-for-profit policing, which is called “The Big Stick” (Spitzer, 1979).
The watch system was composed of community volunteers whose primary duty was to warn of impending danger. Boston created a night watch in 1636, New York in 1658 and Philadelphia in 1700. The night watch wasn’t a particularly effective crime control device. Watchmen often slept or drank on duty. While the watch was theoretically voluntary, many “volunteers” were simply attempting to evade military service, were conscript forced into service by their town, or were performing watch duties as a form of punishment.
Philadelphia created the first day watch in 1833 and New York instituted a day watch in 1844 as a supplement to its new municipal police force (Gaines, Kappeler, and Vaughn 1999). Augmenting the watch system was a system of constables, official law enforcement officers, usually paid by the fee system for warrants they served. Constables had a variety of non-law enforcement functions to perform as well, including serving as land surveyors and verifying the accuracy of weights and measures. In many cities constables were given the responsibility of supervising the activities of the night watch.
These informal modalities of policing continued well after the American Revolution. Not until the 1830s that the idea of a centralized municipal police department first emerged in the United States. In 1838, the city of Boston established the first American police force, followed by New York City in 1845, Albany, NY, and Chicago in 1851, New Orleans and Cincinnati in 1853, Philadelphia in 1855, and Newark, NJ and Baltimore in 1857 (Harring 1983, Lundman 1980; Lynch 1984). By the 1880s all major U. S. cities had municipal police forces in place.
These “modern police” organizations shared similar characteristics: (1) they were publicly supported and bureaucratic in form; (2) police officers were full-time employees, the community volunteers or case-by-case fee retainers; (3) departments had permanent and fixed rules and procedures, and employment as a police officers was continuous; (4) police departments were accountable to a central governmental authority (Lundman 1980). In the Southern states the development of American policing followed a different path.
The genesis of the modern police organization in the South is the “Slave Patrol” (Platt 1982). The first formal slave patrol was created in the Carolina colonies in 1704 (Reichel 1992). Slave patrols had three primary functions: (1) to chase down, apprehend, and return to their owners, runaway slaves; (2) to provide a form of organized terror to deter slave revolts, and (3) to maintain a form of discipline for slave-workers who were subject to summary justice, outside the law, if they violated any plantation rules.
Following the Civil War, these vigilante-style organizations evolved in modern Southern police departments primarily as a means of controlling freed slaves who were now laborers working in an agricultural caste system, and enforcing “Jim Crow” segregation laws, designed to deny freed slaves equal rights and access to the political system. The key question, of course, is what was it about the United States in the 1830s that necessitated the development of local, centralized, bureaucratic police forces? One answer is that cities were growing. The United States wasn’t longer a collection of small cities and rural hamlets.
Urbanization was occurring at an ever-quickening pace and old informal watch and constable system wasn’t longer adequate to control disorder. Anecdotal accounts suggest increasing crime and vice in urban centers. Mob violence, particularly violence directed at immigrants and African Americans by white youths, occurred with some frequency. Public disorder, mostly public drunkenness and sometimes prostitution, was more visible and less easily controlled in growing urban centers than it had been rural villages (Walker 1996). But evidence of an actual crime wave is lacking.
So, if the modern American police force wasn’t a direct response to crime, then what was it a response to? More than crime, modern police forces in the United States emerged as a response to “disorder. ” What constitutes social and public order depends largely on who is defining those terms, and in the cities of 19th century America they were defined by the mercantile interests, who through taxes and political influence supported the development of bureaucratic policing institutions. These economic interests had a greater interest in social control than crime control.
Private and for profit policing was too disorganized and too crime-specific in form to fulfill these needs. The emerging commercial elites needed a mechanism to insure a stable and orderly work force, a stable and orderly environment for the conduct of business, and the maintenance of what they referred to as the “collective good” (Spitzer and Scull 1977). These mercantile interests also wanted to divest themselves of the cost of protecting their own enterprises, transferring those costs from the private sector to the state
Famous Police Now, there just isn’t famous police in real life, there are famous police in movies to like Clint Eastwood to Dennis Farina. Clint Eastwood is an American actor, film director, producer, musician, and political figure. He rose to international fame with his role as the man with no name in Sergio Leone’s Dollars trilogy of spaghetti Westerns during the 1960s, and as antihero cop Harry Callahan in the five Dirty Harry films throughout the 1970s and 1980s.
These roles, among others, have made him an enduring cultural icon of masculinity. For his work in the Western film Unforgiven (1992) and the sports drama Million Dollar Baby (2004), Eastwood won Academy Awards for Best Director and Best Picture, as well as receiving nominations for Best Actor. His greatest commercial successes have been the adventure comedy Every Which Way But Loose (1978) and its sequel, the action comedy “Any Which Way You Can” (1980), after adjustment for inflation. 7] Other popular films include the Western Hang ‘Em High (1968), the psychological thriller Play Misty for Me (1971), the crime film Thunderbolt and Lightfoot (1974), the Western The Outlaw Josey Wales (1976), the prison film Escape from Alcatraz (1979), the action film Firefox (1982), the suspense thriller Tightrope (1984), the Western Pale Rider (1985), the war film Heartbreak Ridge (1986), the action thriller In the Line of Fire (1993), the romantic drama The Bridges of Madison County (1995), and the drama Gran Torino (2008).
In addition, to directing many of his own star vehicles, Eastwood has also directed films where he didn’t appear, such as the mystery drama Mystic River (2003) and the war film Letters from Iwo Jima (2006), which he received Academy Award nominations, and the drama Changeling (2008). The war drama biopic American Sniper (2014) set box office records for the biggest January release ever and was also the biggest opening ever for an Eastwood film. He received considerable critical praise in France for several films, including some that were not well received in the United States.
He has been awarded two of France’s highest honors: in 1994 he became a recipient of the Commandeur of the Ordre des Arts et des Lettres and in 2007 he was awarded the Legion d’honneur medal. In 2000, he was awarded the Italian Venice Film Festival Golden Lion for lifetime achievement. Since 1967, Eastwood has run his own production company, Malpaso, which has produced all except four of his American films. From 1986–88, he served as mayor of Carmel-by-the-Sea, California, a nonpartisan office.
Since the 1970’s Clint has mainly participated in nothing but films with gun related things like when he played as Dirty Harry (1971), written by Harry and Rita Fink, centers on a hard-edged New York City (later changed to San Francisco) police inspector named Harry Callahan who is determined to stop a psychotic killer by any means. Dirty Harry has been described as being arguably Eastwood’s most memorable character, and the film has been credited with inventing the “loose-cannon cop” genre. Author Eric Lichtenfeld argues that Eastwood’s role as Dirty Harry established the “first true archetype” of the action film genre.
His lines (quoted right) are regarded by firearms historians, such as Garry James and Richard Venola, as the force that catapulted the ownership of . 44 Magnum revolvers to new heights in the United States; specifically the Smith & Wesson Model 29 carried by Harry Callahan. Dirty Harry achieved huge success after its release in December 1971, earning $22 million in the United States and Canada alone. Siegel’s highest-grossing film and the start of a series of films featuring the character Harry Callahan.
Although a number of critics praised Eastwood’s performance as Dirty Harry, such as Jay Cocks of Time magazine who described him as “… iving his best performance so far, tense, tough, full of implicit identification with his character,” the film was also widely criticized as being fascistic. Following Sean Connery’s announcement that he would not play James Bond again, Eastwood was offered the role but turned it down because he believed the character should be played by an English actor. He next starred in the loner Western Joe Kidd (1972), based on a character inspired by Reies Lopez Tijerina, who stormed a courthouse in Tierra Amarilla, New Mexico in June 1967.
During filming, Eastwood suffered symptoms of a bronchial infection and several panic attacks. Joe Kidd received a mixed reception, with Roger Greenspun of The New York Times writing that was unremarkable, with foolish symbolism and sloppy editing, although he praised Eastwood’s performance. In 1973, Eastwood directed his first western, High Plains Drifter, where he also starred. The film had a moral and supernatural theme, later emulated in Pale Rider. The plot follows a mysterious stranger (Eastwood) who arrives in a brooding Western town where the people hire him to protect them against three soon-to-be-released felons.
There remains confusion during the film as to whether the stranger is the brother of the deputy, whom the felons lynched and murdered, or his ghost. Holes in the plot were filled with black humor and allegory, influenced by Leone. The revisionist film received a mixed reception, but was a major box office success. A number of critics thought Eastwood’s directing was “as derivative as it was expressive,” with Arthur Knight of the Saturday Review remarking that Eastwood had “… absorbed the approaches of Siegel and Leone and fused them with his own paranoid vision of society.
John Wayne, who had declined a role in the film, sent a letter to Eastwood soon after the film’s release where he complained that, “The townspeople did not represent the true spirit of the American pioneer, the spirit that made America great. Therefore, Police have been around for a long time. The police people have now days though are a lot better than the ones people had back in the 1800’s. Now, since I have gave a pretty good explanation of what police do and how they protect people, so now you should have a brief description of what their purpose is.