Title IX (Title 9) is a US federal statute that prohibits discrimination based on gender in any educational programs which receive federal funds. Title IX states: “No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance.” The Title IX legislation prohibits sexual harassment and governs how schools must handle sexual violence complaints. Title IX also regulates athletic departments’ sports offerings for both genders at colleges and universities throughout the country. Title IX has been controversial since it was enacted.
In 1972 Title IX became part of the US Civil Rights Act as Title IX-a protecting people from gender discrimination in education programs or activities that receive Federal financial assistance. Title IX has six parts to it, all designed to combat gender discrimination. Title nine part one says that schools will not exclude people based on their sex. Title nine part two requires schools to create an educational environment free of harassment.
Title nine part three ensures that students are evaluated in an equal manner with the same requirements for both genders Title nine part four is about recruiting, which prevents exclusionary practices against women. Title nine part five is about scholarships, which require athletic-based scholarships to be split equally between men and women athletes at every level of play Title nine part six prohibits sex-segregation as a means of preventing Title IX violations
Title eleven key components are:
1) Schools must have procedures for working with and responding to incidents of sexual assault.
2) Schools must ensure Title IX coordinators are available at all times. Title nine part three requires school officials dealing with Title IX issues to be properly trained and Title nine, part six states that schools cannot segregate classes or activities based on gender as a way to prevent Title IX violations
3) The law outlines what information the school should investigate and how it should report its findings and disciplinary action. Title nine part five says that any investigation should first and foremost protect the safety and well-being of students involved in the incident as well as those that may be at risk of becoming involved. This includes taking immediate steps such as separating the accused from potential victims even if doing so means changing class schedules or housing assignments. Title nine part three requires schools to conduct investigations within 60 days of receiving a complaint
4) Title IX applies to all colleges that receive federal money, which includes nearly every school, public or private. Title nine part six prohibits sex-segregation as a means of preventing Title IX violations
5) Title nine part seven allows both the accuser and the accused to have an advisor present during proceedings. The law states that this does not have to be legal counsel but may be someone who provides emotional support. Title eleven part one says that any school representative involved in Title IX cases must be trained on how to properly investigate incidents, understand relevant applicable laws, and identify responsible parties
6) Any sexual assault allegations also needs to be reported under Clery Act Title eleven part two says that any school employee who has received information about Title IX incidents involving students must report it to the Title IX coordinator. Title nine part six prohibits sex-segregation as a means of preventing Title IX violations
7) Title eleven part three requires schools to update their policies and prevention programs every year to stay in compliance with Title IX. Title nine part one states that no person shall be subject to discrimination under an education program or activity receiving federal financial assistance. The US Department of Education provides Office for Civil Rights (OCR) resources regarding Title IX for educational institutions, students, parents or guardians, employees and other interested individuals or organizations OCR provides publications regarding how colleges deal with sexual assault cases among many other resources
8) Title eleven part four states that Title IX does not apply to faculty, staff or those participating in college activities. Title nine part one says no person shall be subject to discrimination under an education program or activity receiving federal financial assistance Title nine, part six prohibits sex-segregation as a means of preventing Title IX violations
Title IX as a whole is often seen as controversial as it does not create equal opportunities for both genders but rather pressures universities into creating opportunities that favor women. The Office for Civil Rights published the list of colleges that have been found noncompliant with Title IX which includes many prestigious universities such as Yale and Harvard.
Title IX is a set of rules passed by the government in 1972 that prohibits sex discrimination in educational programs. Title IX states, “No person in the United States shall , on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance. ” Title IX was created to ensure that men and women had equal access to college athletics, but Title IX has many other implications.
Title IX has been a controversial topic because of the fact that it provides no exceptions for sex, unlike Title VII (Equal Employment Opportunity). Title IX prohibited discrimination in education programs receiving federal funds. Schools who receive federal funds must demonstrate Title IX compliance or risk losing funds; however, there is no penalty provision for violations. (Petrocelli & Park, 2012) Title IX has opened up opportunities for females across the nation in different aspects of their lives such as academics and athletics.
In 1972 during Title IX’s implementation women only made up thirty percent of college undergraduate enrollment. In 2010 women represented fifty one percent of undergraduate enrollment. Title IX also affected college graduate rates, in 1970 women only made up twenty percent of college graduates whereas in 2009 women made up fifty four percent. (Petrocelli & Park, 2012) Title IX has added opportunities to increase the level of education for women and has opened doors to careers that were once male dominated fields.
Title IX also created an opportunity for females in athletics in which they could play sports in college without discrimination in both receiving financial aide and equitable side in facilities. Title IX allowed females an opportunity to become financially independent by playing sports while attending college because the government would pay them each month to attend school. Title IX created a new market for girls sports apparel such as tennis shoes, jerseys, shorts, etc.. Title IX also created Title IX compliance in coaching. Title IX states that for every five males, there must be four females on a coaching staff. Petrocelli & Park, 2012)
Title IX has opened up female dominated athletic opportunities outside of college. Title IX was implemented in 1972 and since then there have been thirty one women’s professional leagues in basketball, softball, soccer, etc.. Title IX also requires all teams to have equal access to equipment such as balls and bats when it comes to sports. Title IX has opened up doors for revenue making by giving girls the opportunity to make a living off playing a sport because they were always receiving money from the government.