Ancient civilization is the given name for civilizations before the invention of writing. The first civilization was created in Mesopotamia (modern day Iraq) sometime between 3500 BC and 3100 BC. While civilization existed earlier, civilization as we know it today was created by these early civilizations that began to trade with one another across land and sea. Civilizations began in the river valleys of Mesopotamia and Egypt.
The civilization created in these two areas were very similar because they were both established along waterways and relied heavily on farming. Cuneiform writing was invented in Mesopotamia and hieroglyphics was created in Egypt making them both literate civilizations at an early age. These civilizations also traded with one another across the waters along the Mediterranean sea between 3500 BC and 3100 BC which helped spread civilization to other parts of the world such as China and India.
The civilization created by Mesopotamians stayed relatively stable for thousands of years due to their ability to limit their trading partners but it experienced many changes during this time period including a change from monarchical rule (rule by kings) to oligarchical rule (rule by small group of elites) which led to civilization becoming more complex. Other civilizations created in the area around Mesopotamia such as Assyria and Babylonia were founded due to this civilization’s expansion.
Between 1500 BC and 500 BC civilization was taken over by the Persians who were responsible for enforcing change on civilization that made it more organized. The civilization created in the Indus River Valley known as Harappan civilization remained stable for centuries until a large influx of Indo-European culture disrupted their way of life changing their religion, art, and economy. This civilization did not have a form of writing but archaeologists have been able to collect information about them through studying their city plans, tools, pottery, and seals.
Though civilization was not created in this area between 3000 BC and 1500 BC civilization spread along the Indian Ocean which led to civilization being created by the people of China. The civilization created by people who lived in areas surrounding the Yellow River in China was similar to civilization that existed in Mesopotamia due to their trading with one another but is also different because it relied heavily on irrigation. This civilization’s government became more complex over time as the civilization expanded, the writing system developed, and bronze working was introduced.
The creation of civilization may have been influenced by trade with civilizations such as India, Assyria, Mesopotamia, and Egypt at an early age where they exchanged goods across land and sea leading to other civilizations being formed further away. Between 2200 BC and 1750 BC civilization declined in China which led to civilization being created around the Yangtze River valley that relied heavily on farming. Iron was introduced to civilization during this time period and spread further into civilization through trade with other civilizations like India and Europe in areas such as Asia Minor (modern day Turkey).
Around 1600 BC civilization underwent a “Neolithic Revolution” where it began using iron tools which also led civilization to become more effective at farming due to the invention of the plough. The civilization created in Mesopotamia, Egypt, China, and India were all very similar because they all relied on farming for their primary food source and developed writing systems though these also differed from one another by expanding civilization through conquest, expansion, and trade.
The civilization created by Mesopotamians remained relatively stable for thousands of years until civilization was taken over by the Persians while civilization in China became more complex due to its reliance on irrigation. India experienced changes but civilization did not form in this area until after 2000 BC when civilization spread along the Indian Ocean leading civilization to be developed by the people living in areas surrounding the Indus River.
The civilization created in all four of these civilizations were shaped by their ability to expand, conquer other civilizations or maintain stability within their own civilization which helped make them all similar yet different from one another. All four civilizations managed to develop writing systems, major religions were born in two these civilizations (which are still practiced today), and the civilization created in China were able to advance further than civilization created in India due to the invention of iron.
Other civilizations that may have been influenced by civilization created in Mesopotamia, Egypt, China, or India are civilizations such as the Aztec civilization where they traded with civilization from Asia Minor empire would later fall to Rome while the civilization created by people who lived in areas surrounding modern day Thailand and Cambodia traded with civilization from Indonesia. The civilization created within South America was also influenced by other civilizations like China and Europe because trade allowed for them to obtain goods like bronze tools which allowed civilization creation around this area.
Even though civilization was not formed until after 2000 BC it still managed to spread into many different parts of the world through trade which is one way civilization has been able to influence civilization throughout time. Different methods of civilization creation were used by civilization created in Mesopotamia, Egypt, China, and India because they all relied on farming as their primary food source so civilization was created around areas where people could easily farm without having to rely heavily on hunting or herding animals for food.
Religion also became important in Mesopotamia after civilization formed there due to the invention of writing and was not present in civilizations like China prior to civilization being formed there. The development of civilization may have been influenced by trading with civilizations such as India and Assyria which helped lead to civilization formation further away from Mesopotamia and civilization formation around the Indus River valley instead of near the Tigris and Euphrates rivers.
In civilization created in Mesopotamia writing was invented from existing symbols that were being used as a form of pictograms to represent animals, people, objects, etc. In civilization created in India civilization initially relied on trade with civilization from civilizations such as Babylon and Greece instead of relying on farming which led civilization formation further away from the Indus River valley which gave civilization creation around this area a unique spin compared to civilizations formed at the same time by civilization formed near the Tigris and Euphrates rivers.