The intermolecular forces present in heptane/1-hexanol mixtures are mainly due to the oxygen atoms in the hexanol molecules. These oxygen atoms can form hydrogen bonds with the hydrogen atoms in the heptane molecules. The strength of these intermolecular forces depends on the number of hydrogen bonds that can be formed.
The boiling point is a measure of the strength of molecular forces. The greater the degree to which molecules are linked, the more energy is required to transform them into gases. Intermolecular forces are known as such. Dispersion forces, dipole-dipole interactions, and hydrogen bonding are all types of intermolecular force. The functional groups present have an impact on these attractive forces’ effectiveness. Heptane has a boiling point of 98.4°C (1), whereas 1-hexanol has a melting point of 157°C (2).
(2) The oxygen atom in 1-hexanol can form hydrogen bonds with other molecules, whereas heptane cannot. This is because the oxygen is more electronegative than carbon, so it can share electrons more easily with other atoms, particularly hydrogen. The hydrogen bonding makes 1-hexanol a much stronger force to overcome and thus it has a much higher boiling point.
The greater the boiling point of a chemical, the less soluble it is in water. Heptane has a lower boiling point than 1-hexanol since it is an alkane containing only dispersion forces and non polar molecules, as opposed to heptane’s high boiling temperature.
London dispersion forces are always present but are much weaker then other intermolecular forces. generally the molecules with hydrogen bonding or dipole-dipole forces have higher boiling points.
This is because these types of intermolecular forces are much stronger than London Dispersion Forces. When comparing heptane and 1-hexanol, 1-hexanol has a higher boiling point because it can form hydrogen bonds, while heptane can only form London Dispersion Forces.
When comparing the two higher-molecular-weight compounds, surface area isn’t as important because as the chain length is increased, the surface area rises, resulting in an increase in boiling point. The surface areas of the above substances are also comparable.
So, we have to look at some other factors. The types of intermolecular forces present in heptane are: London dispersion forces, dipole-dipole interactions, and van der Waals forces. The intermolecular forces present in 1-hexanol are: hydrogen bonds, dipole-dipole interactions, and van der Waals forces.
The main difference between the two compounds is that heptane only has London dispersion forces while 1-hexanol has all three types of intermolecular forces. London dispersion forces are the weakest type of intermolecular force while hydrogen bonds are the strongest. This means that 1-hexanol will have a higher boiling point than heptane because the intermolecular forces are stronger.
The boiling point of heptane is 98.4°C while the boiling point of 1-hexanol is 156.2°C. This difference is due to the fact that 1-hexanol has hydrogen bonds while heptane does not. Hydrogen bonds are much stronger than London dispersion forces, so 1-hexanol will have a higher boiling point.
The boiling point of a substance that contains more than one functional group is higher than that of an alkane because hydroxyl groups have stronger hydrogen bonding than dipole-dipole forces. The greater the intermolecular forces, the more energy it will take to break them. As a result, it takes more energy to convert 1-hexanol into gas than it does to transform heptane.
The stronger the intermolecular attractive forces between molecules, the higher the boiling point of a liquid.
The oxygen atom in the 1-hexanol molecule can form hydrogen bonds with other 1-hexanol molecules. Heptane molecules can only engage in London dispersion forces. The hydrogen bonding between 1-hexanol molecules is much stronger than the London dispersion forces between heptane molecules.
As a result, it takes more energy to break the intermolecular forces between 1-hexanol molecules and convert the liquid into a gas. The boiling point of 1-hexanol is therefore higher than the boiling point of heptane.
Dispersive forces and dipole-dipole forces are applied to 1-hexanol, while heptane is subjected to dispersive forces and dipole-dipole forces. The hydrogen bonding in 1-hexanol is greater than the dispersive forces in heptane, resulting in a higher boiling point for 1-hexanol than for heptane.
The main intermolecular force operating in heptane is London dispersion forces. These are present because all molecules have electrons, which are constantly moving around. This movement creates areas of positive and negative charge, which attract other molecules and result in a temporary dipole. The bigger the molecule, the more electrons it has, and the greater its potential for London dispersion forces. Heptane is a relatively small molecule, so its London dispersion forces are not very strong.
The main intermolecular force operating in 1-hexanol is hydrogen bonding. This is because the molecule has a hydrogen atom attached to an oxygen atom. The oxygen atom is much more electronegative than the hydrogen atom, so it attracts the electrons in the bond more strongly. This creates a permanent dipole, with the oxygen atom being partially negative and the hydrogen atom being partially positive. The dipole then interacts with other molecules that have dipoles, resulting in a strong intermolecular force.
So overall, the main difference between the two liquids is that 1-hexanol experiences hydrogen bonding while heptane does not. Hydrogen bonding is a much stronger force than London dispersion forces, so it results in a higher boiling point for 1-hexanol.