Broiling Vs Grilling Research Paper

Grilling is similar to broiling, the primary difference is that grilling is cooked “over” a direct dry heat source on a gridiron (open wire grid) or a griddle (flat plate); whereas broiling, cooks food “from above. ” Grilling uses a hot surface to cook foods, which creates a distinct aroma and flavor through a chemical process known as the Maillard reaction. The Maillard (pronounced “my-YARD”) reaction typically occurs when temperatures reach 285 F – 310 F or higher, causing the proteins in the meat to turn brown. The high heat sears the meat to seal in flavors.

Searing is when you take browning to the extreme. You are cooking the outside of the meat as fast as you can, creating a thick, flavorful crust. Grilled foods need to be turned once, during the cooking process, to ensure even cooking. Do not pierce the meat. Grilling provides a high retention of vitamins and mineral and is best for tender cuts of meat. Art: Various wood chips can be added on top of charcoal to provide additional flavor. Popular choices include mesquite, hickory, pecan, apple, maple and oak. ROAST BROWN BAKE Roasting and Baking are similar dry heat cooking methods.

The factor that sets the methods apart is the structure of the food. Roasting involves foods that have a solid structure before cooking, such as vegetables and meats. Baking involves food that will become a solid once baked, such as breads and cakes. Roasting usually requires a higher temperature to achieve the browned appearance, whereas baking is at a lower temperature. Both methods use hot dry air and are cooked uncovered. Remember that when the proteins of meat are browned, it is an example of the Maillard reaction. When browning occurs while heating carbohydrates (like bread) it is the result of caramelization.

Roasting is best for thicker, tender cuts of meat. Roasting is done in a preheated, uncovered, shallow pan, in the oven, at temperatures of at least 300 F or higher. When the meat is placed on the preheated surface, it begins to brown. Browning does not cook the meat, it just changes the surface, creating a golden brown exterior and a moist, tender interior. Browning adds flavors and colors that you can’t produce with moist heat cooking methods. Roasting heats food evenly, due to the exterior of the food being exposed to the same temperature. This causes the food to become moist and juicy.

The term “Pan Roast” refers to searing the meat in a skillet, them placing it in the oven to cook. Baking is virtually the same as roasting but is the term used for foods that are cooked at temperatures below 375 F. Baking surrounds food with hot air, causing foods to set (such as casseroles) or puff up and rise (like breads and muffins. ) The hot air causes the sugars in the carbohydrates to caramelize, creating the golden brown color that is desired. SAUTE SMOKE POINT SWEAT STIR FRY WOK SAUTE Sauteing is a dry heat cooking method that cooks food quickly, in a small amount of fat, over high heat.

Due to the quick method, foods do not lose their texture and stay crisp. They also produce a rich flavor. To saute you will need a hot pan, set on medium to medium-high heat. Preheat the pan for a minute, before adding the fat. (Choose healthier fats, such as peanut or canola oil, they do not burn as fast as others. ) Only add enough oil or fat to coat the skillet. When your fat or oil is close to the smoking point, you will add the food. The smoking point is a specific temperature, where the oil breaks down and starts to produce a foul smell, bitter taste, or a small amount of smoke.

When this happens, add your food and then stir and toss to promote even browning and cooking. Make sure you are not overcrowding the pan, and that the food is cut into uniform thickness and size. If you have too much food in the pan, it will cause the food to steam or boil, instead of sauteing. Sweat is a form of sauteing. This method occurs at a much lower temperature. The food softens while sweating out moisture. This method does not caramelize or brown the food. Another cooking method that is similar to sauteing is stir frying. Stir frying takes sauteing to the next level.

Stir frying, unlike sauteing, uses a very high heat source, while tossing the food constantly. It is important to cut your foods into small bite sized pieces for uniform cooking. Typically a lightly oiled wok is used when stir frying. A wok is a bowl shaped frying pan with a rounded bottom and deep, slanted sides. Stir frying cooks the outside of the food quickly, adding a crisp texture and distinct flavor to various foods. Pan frying and sauteing are also very similar. The difference is that pan frying uses more fat, and is set to a lower temperature than sauteing.

The goal for both methods is to cook your food uickly, keeping vitamin and water loss to a minimum, which helps improve flavor and color. Pan frying browns the exterior while cooking the interior, which helps retain moisture. Typically foods that are pan fried are coated with batter, seasoned or breaded first. ? of the pan is coated with fat or oil, causing a flavorful, crisp, brown crust. Pan frying is typically used for larger, tender cuts of meat. To pan fry, you use a skillet or pan with a flat bottom and straight sides. You will want to choose an oil with a neutral flavor, such as peanut oil, or canola oil, and heat the pan to medium to medium-high heat.

Make sure you do not overcrowd the food. Overcrowding lowers the temperature, hindering evaporation, creating steam, and will cause the food to stick or become soggy. For best results, turn only once while cooking. Turning too soon can cause the breading to stick to the pan or fall off. Another type of dry heat cooking method, similar to pan frying, is shallow frying. The difference is that you partially submerge the food where the fat or oil comes halfway up the sides of the meat. It is important to keep the temperature of the oil constant, without overcrowding. Shallow frying helps food retain soluble nutrients.

Deep frying is another dry heat method. The difference with this method, is that the food is submerged or covered in hot heated oil. This causes all surfaces of the food to cook at the same time. Temperatures usually range from 325 F – 400 F. If the oil is any hotter, it may smoke, if any cooler, the oil will absorb into the food causing a greasy taste. When deep frying, remember to cook in small batches and avoid overcrowding the pan. Food items that are deep fried have an evenly browned, crispy appearance. When the food rises to the surface, you know it is done.

Art: Rancidity – Chemical damage that can occur in meats. Oxygen and light breakdown fats into fragments that are small and odorous. These fragments define the smell of rancidity. Unsaturated fats go bad quicker than saturated fats. Food that is rancid will not necessarily make you sick, but it does not taste or smell pleasant. Fat oxidation can be delayed by handling meat properly. You can do this by keeping meat wrapped tightly in oxygen-impermeable wrap, such as saran, then wrapping it again in freezer paper or foil. Store in the coldest, darkest part of the refrigerator or freezer.