The principle of anticipation and continuity are two of the sustainment essential to maintaining combat power, enabling strategic and operational reach, and providing Army forces with endurance. By applying the principle of anticipation, a sustainment network can extend operational reach in greater flexibility to maintain tempo, moderate risk, or develop opportunities. Anticipation is the skill to forecast operational requirements and begin actions that satisfies a reply without any written documentation.
Sustainment anticipation is about assessing the current conditions for the possibilities of opportunities or defeat within the concept of the operations. Anticipation is an essential property for an operational plan to be sustainable. Continuity is continuous condition of sustainment across all levels of war. Continuity of the sustainment provides a commander the flexibility to maintain a quick tempo. This allows the commander the freedom of maneuver necessary to take the plan.
The ability to control operational tempo provides opportunities to influence the environment, therefore it is important that the sustainment system function without a distraction to the throughput of resources. In addition to the forces, the resulting flexibility may create opportunities that the other warfighting functions can develop. Phasing can break up a compound operation into parts with transition marking a change of focal point in priority of sustainment and effort. In spite, variable and intensity of the sustainment operation enable the addition of operational reach through the sustainment principles of anticipation and continuity.
In other words, logistics lead times frequently require support to be pushed forward in anticipation of requirements. The continuity of logistics planners focuses on maintaining the sustainment within the mission. The sustainment focus on anticipation results in continuity of support during logistical awareness. The Army maintains the pre-positioned stock (APS) programs, which consist of land-base and sea-base. There are five levels of stock, each are located OCONUS or at sea, except level one which is located in CONUS.
There are also additional APS. The APS supplied units deploy early in the mission to support operation around the global regions, thus reducing strategic lift. In order to provide the necessary support in certain areas APS programs are set up for United States National Security and humanitarian needs. The Army projection of force swiftly and effectively deploys from several areas to react to crisis, contributes to obstacles, and developed regions. Projection of force allows the leaders to make decisions in order to react to crisis.
The storage of APS around the world can equip any unit with support, even during a training exercise. The land-based APS consists of four heavy combat brigades located in Europe, Pacific, Northeast Asia, and Southwest Asia. The pre-positioned set has the most vehicles in our PE covered in F203. The APS in Pacific and Southwest Asia combat power contains M1A1 main battle tanks, Bradley Fighting Vehicles, M109 self-propelled 155mm, Howitzers and Multiple-Launch Rocket systems, and Stinger air defense weapons. This equipment is pre-positioned overseas to receive the equipment faster.
The sea-based APS has 12 vessels, which have a two brigade set of combat power, logistics supplies, and the United States Army Medical Material Agency (USAMMA) for Class VIII. The early downloading of APS-3 allowed USAMMA and Army Sustainment Command (ASC) to stage equipment, conducts basic maintenance, and applies work orders. The unit sends an advanced party to facilitate and assist USAMMA and ASC with the issuing of equipment. The mission received to activate the APS. The 3rd Brigade from Fort Bragg received orders to deploy in 10 days and fall on equipment. The Chairman of Joint of chief of Staff (CJCS) approved the orders.
The Chairman of Joint Logistics Operation Center (JLOC) made the transportation requirements for personnel and equipment with the support of several different agencies, including APS support for 3rd Brigade. The Theater Sustainment Command (TSC) is responsible for theater opening, theater distribution, and theater sustainment missions performed by sustainment brigades. The Expeditionary Sustainment Commands (ESC) may be the advanced party before the sustainment brigade. Port opening and debarkation is one of the key tasks for the theater opening.
The Joint Task Force- Port Opening (TF-PO) has to prepare the ight personnel for the mission. An advanced party is sent to determine the needs for the mission. The advanced party leader speaks with the host nation to confirm the size of the sea and aerial port. Once the assessment is complete and sent back to JTF-PO, they determine if the location best serves the mission. If the location is approved the commander will determine the size of the port. The advanced party also receives cargo until they are relieved by the follow on unit. The pre-positioned stock wnloads for an infantry combat brigade team to support the opening of the theater.
The advanced party could be on ground for up to 60 days. The unit arrives to open the port. The Command team then coordinates with the host nation for services, contracts, and local support. This will determine the required logistical support from the APS until the equipment reaches the location. The theater opening is a joint mission consisting of sustainment brigade, mixed functional battalions, augmentation element, USTRANSCOM, and DLA. The next phase will require the necessary preparation of receiving units. The sustainment brigade then establishes the reception, staging, onward movement, and integration (RSOI).
The RSOI process consists of the personnel and equipment arriving into the theater and providing life support. The staging process is designed to assemble, hold, and organize personnel and equipment, build combat power, integrate personnel on their ssions, and prepare the unit for onward movement. The movement consists of staging for the tactical mission, adding augmentation personnel, and sustaining the requirements to support the mission. The integration process focuses on the chain of responsibility once the unit reaches the tactical command.
The integration process is over when the commander receives command and control of the arriving unit. The theater opening and theater distribution can work simultaneity to complete the mission. The theater distribution brigade is the flow of personnel, equipment, and managing distribution center. The 45th sustainment brigade is in charge of all the items coming into theater. The process starts at the port or flight strip with downloading personnel or equipment. The distribution center will receive the equipment then inventory and process in order to forward to the unit.
The final process will be to ensure the end user receive the required equipment. Health Service Support (HSS) is one of the three major elements of the Warfighting Function. HSS’s mission is to support the sustainment Warfighting Function that provide support in additional services to ensure freedom of action, extend operational reach, and prolong endurance. The HSS is one of the sustainment Commander’s top priorities because of the outside requirements. The Army Medical Department is the responsible command for the HSS and is augmented to the sustainment battalion or brigade.
HSS conducts medical services that consist of supporting Soldiers and other personnel. In order for foreign nationals to receive treatment during wartime there must be a loss of life, limb, or eyesight. The HSS provides four ranges of care from buddy aid to direct lifesaving measures. Buddy aid care is the first range of care, EXPLAIN. The second range of medical care are breathing treatments and holding areas for patients by a medical unit. The next range is a Corp level medical unit that provides surgeries and larger holding areas. The last range is MEDEVAC back to Landstuhl or Walter Reed medical center.
Additionally, veterinary services are provided for military police dogs and the dinning facilities are inspected. The Army understands the need for Casualty Care (CC) because it incorporated a task into the Soldier Manual Common Task Listing. The Tactical Combat Casualty Care (TCCC) task gives direct systematic guidance in order to complete the mission. The training gives the Soldier some idea of what the task will be like on the battlefield. The TCCC has three phases, which include care under fire, tactical field care, and tactical evacuation.
Care under fire means the medical personnel and patients are under fire, limited care takes at that time. During this phase, there is limited equipment carried by the combat medic. The only care that will be given is for life threatening injuries until the attack is over, this is in the best interest of the casualty. Immediate attention is given to the hostile fire. If the injured Soldier is not able to return fire, they should lie down or be moved to cover. Once the attack is over the next phase will be to move the patient to the tactical field care.
In reality, there may be sufficient time to render whatever care is possible in the field. The medical personnel can then give tactical field care to the patient because there is no longer a threat. At this time, the initial evaluation of the patient will be to check their airway, breathing, and circulation. If the patient is unconscious with a pulse, they are probably in shock. The airway is opened with a chin-lift or jaw-thrust method without the worry of obstruction. There are limited treatments during this phase because the patient is still on the battlefield.