In addition, during the Renaissance period, the King James Bible was considered as the greatest prose work, as it offers the opportunity for English speaking world to examine their faith in a more independent expression. One of the psalms from the King James Bible written by King David, the psalm 23, greatly represents to the relationship between humanity and the Devine. In Psalm 23, as King David illustrates God as the “shepherd” and the “host”, the imagery of God grow vivid: God, the determined power who offers shelter and peace to the followers.
Under his name and grace, with his company, there are no fear that can be felt even when walking through “the valley of the shadow of the death”, with his protection, who then should the men fear? Live in the righteous and endless love of God, human has “dwell in the house of the Lord forever. ” Through the description, the individual spiritual connection with the Devine one grow closer than it was ever before. With the translation of the Bible that used to be only read by clergy and scholar, the men live in England are able to build their own covenants more personally with their father.
Moreover, as the England history reach the peak of the glory after the Enlightenment movements, during the romanticism period, a more personal relationships between God, nature, and human has been illuminated: the embracement. Based on the idea of romanticism, the grace of God has blend in the surroundings and every creation on earth. As for human beings, they are considered as a part of the Devine within God which together create a wholeness.
There are no limits of time and spaces as long as the covenant between father and son maintain. For example, in William Wordsworth’s so next Composed Upon Westminster Bridge, by illustrating the most ordinary objects in life such as the morning, sky, and river; a fairness and holiness of God’s creation and the Holy Spirit that embraced by human in their soul react to each other to create a moment of “immortality” as the souls stand still in such Devine images
Besides the magnificent words poets use for the consuming fire of love from God, some authors prefer to lead the idea of God and Goodness to a more profound level. During the seventeenth and eighteenth century, as the English civil war outbreaks, the doubts against the absolute power trembled. The question of the ultimate idea of justice rise in the public: what’s represented power? Can the absolute power always be righteous? To reflect on the society, John Milton decides to end his scholar journey and obligated to retire to his hometown.
He believed the existence of hierarchy are extremely corrupting. In order to embark the revolution in the nation, Milton starts his epic Paradise Lost, through the work, his argument brought him both greater publicity and angry criticism from the religious establishment in England. By encouraging the rebellion against the tyranny, Milton also seems to bring an absurd picture of Satan as a tragic hero and the impression of God as a tyrant.
Published in 1667, evokes a wild opinion has been brought to concern by the audience: Lucifer, the most beautiful creation by God who falls from the grace, also known as the devil Satan, is qualified to be considered as a tragic heroic protagonist due to his struggles with his free will and desire: as the most beautiful creation among all the angel who is named as the “morning star” and the “messenger of light”. Lucifer is surly the representative of flawlessness(Qassemi). However, even he has been identified as the most honorable angle under god’s reign, Lucifer’s vanity would not be fulfilled.
Lucifer “set[s] himself in Glory above his Peers [and] trusts to have [equality]” with” the most High”(BOOKI, 40-43 ). As the one who is celebrated of his strength and fame, Lucifer questions the omnipotent ruler in heaven: he has the “ambitious aim /Against the Throne and Monarchy of God” and desires the power of God his father, and he aspires to overthrow his creator(Qassemi). Lucifer’s pride and desires instigate him to challenge the only authority on the throne(BOOKI, 43-46).
By struggling with his doubts about the authority of God and overcome his weakness- his fear and veneration to his father God, Lucifer confirms his decision recklessly and raises his army Seraphim to rebel against the dominator(Paradise Lost: Introduction). The behavior of Lucifer to overcome his fear and struggles and perform his decision with no holding back illustrates his bravery and revolutionary spirit. However, other scholars and audience refute the statement that John Milton illustrates Lucifer as the representative of revolutionary figure and the tragic hero.
Even though Lucifer seems to have the spirit of a revolutionary leader figure, he is unqualified to be called as a tragic hero. For instance, Lucifer could be viewed as simply a rebellious figure who betrays his father rather than a sacrifice of revolution(SATAN’S REBELLION AND WAR IN HEAVEN). Created by God, Lucifer is born with beauty and honor as the most flawless creation by God in heaven. However, Lucifer forgets that all the strength he owns are given by God and contains no gratitude nor respect to his unique gift from his father.
As he remains no respect to the divine, “his Pride Had cast him out from Heaven”(BOOKI, 36-37). He has shown no faith nor fear to his omnipotent father but only his ridiculous desire to break from the connection with God and to exceed his creator. With his ungratefulness and arrogance, Lucifer is sentenced to dwell in the “bottomless perdition” with “adamantine Chains and penal Fire” and could no longer be valued as a heroic figure but a villain who could even act disobedience against his own father and the mighty God (BOOKI, 49).
Furthermore, Lucifer accomplishes his goal to corrupt God’s beloved creation in order to revenge on his sufferings of falling from the paradise. While the large public opinion value this action as Lucifer seeking justice and revenge for his own pain, however, according to John Milton, God has already foreknowledge Lucifer’s abandon and his conspiracy(Paradise Lost: Introduction). As the omnipotent, omniscient, and omnipresent God that “shall be all in all”, his purpose is not to create a world of perfection but a world in which his glory could be manifest in all its fullness(BOOK III, 341).
Therefore, even though God has foreknowledge the betrayal of his best creation and his beloved son and daughter, God remains in silence. He loves his creation and strongly defends humankind’s free will. He presents his love through his Son Jesus, who performs his will equitably and mercifully under his “celestial Light”(BOOK III, 50). Unlike what Lucifer interprets, God has no weaknesses, he embodies pure reason, and is always just(Murphy).
He owns the “ethereal Powers” that “All secrets of the deep, all Nature’s works, Or works of God in Heaven” and “Deeds, Faith, Virtue, Patience, Temperance, Love” are fulfilled in his kingdom(BOOK XII. 575-587). He gives his reasoning behind his actions. By allowing evil and free will to occur, he makes good out of evil. His plan to save humankind by offering his Son shows his steadfast control over Satan. By expelling humankind from the Eden, the regain of paradise starts. As the prefect existence of eternity, the end results of his decision have always been beneficial.
Lucifer, as the representative of mutineer with pride against the absolute power, contains the rebellious spirit of a typical revolutionist in his blood. Unlike the ordinaries, Lucifer are illustrated as an independent individual who is uncontrollable by the central power(Smith). To be more specific, Lucifer is more likely to be depicted as a divergent. His resistance against the autocracy shares similarities with all the tragic heroic figures who is unafraid of being damned eternally and later become the sacrifice of dictatorship.
By rebelling against God, Lucifer, who was originally valued as the most honorable man, embraces the evil caused by his indignation and injustice, and faces his misfortune. However, even though Lucifer earns sympathies from the audience, he doesn’t qualified to the prerequisite of a misfortune hero. Even though Lucifer used to be valued as one of the most virtuous men and faced a dramatic misfortune in his life, the consequence of tragedy is mainly caused by his own vicious intention against the merciful God and his reckless action(Paradise Lost: Introduction).
In other words, despite Lucifer is viewed as a victim who suffers from the fall from heaven, the disasters, however, are the returning consequences of his ungratefulness and arrogance(McMahon). With the intention to betray and overthrow his own creator and father, Lucifer has committed an irretrievable sin. Carrying pride and malicious purpose in the beginning, Lucifer no longer deserves to be recognized as a tragic heroic figure due to his deviation of morality. In short, with examination and testimony of faith, the image of God glow in the brightness and darkness above the nation through time.
With the greatest kind of love, any fear could be eliminated. B feeling the great grace and mercy from the Devine one, authors in England are able to continue their lives in strong faith even during the most turbulent time, and by illustrating the deepest love in words, the good deeds could be spread on earth. In conclusion, in English literature history, developed based on the most prosperous land and civilization, the idea of love towards the nation, humanity, and the eternal God flourished.
With the spread of words, these three forms of love are able to inspire the people of the nation with its forever lasting charms. With the power of love and words, the connection between people and the nation has been bonded eternally. Even live in various periods and time in the history, the beauty of the England could always be felt and found under the masterpieces of works. Even the mortal bodies faded, the timeless souls and spirits live now and forevermore.