Many human diseases have a genetic constituent. Genetics concern in what way information is saved and transferred amid generations. Huge controversy over the preceding decade has instigated in our world regarding that genetic diseases cannot be cured. However, scientists looked for hopes when it came to cell investigations that delivered them for many new responses for diseases that have for so long remained beyond our grip which with all the controversy surrounding, it lead to benefits regarding medical fields. One happens to be gene therapy. Gene therapy is the outline of genes into cells to cure extensive diseases.
Its rise is of the revolution foreshadowed by the outline of recombinant DNA practice that happened in the 1970s that began as methods to originate embryonic stem cells from mouse embryos. Then with research study of biology, mouse stem cells guided to the finding of a way to originate stem cells from human embryos and raise the cells in the laboratory. Referred to as the human embryonic stem cells. After a long rollercoaster of story, conclusively these specialized adult cells were reprogrammed genetically to shoulder a stem cell-like state (1).
One of the gene therapies happens to be by the use of stem cells, which is one of the zones in contemporaneous Biology. Stem cells are pluripotent cells (2). They can generate more stem cells as well as successors that turn into diverse types of cells, such as blood, nerve, and pancreatic islet cells. This leaves us to two core classes of stem cells, embryonic and adult. Figure 1. Replicating or differentiating.
Capps, Benjamin J. and Alastair V. Campbell, eds. Contested Cells: Global Perspectives on the Stem Cell Debate. London: Imperial College Press, 2010. 1) Committee on Guidelines for Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research. Washington, D. C. : National Academies Press, 2005 (2) Gregory CA, Prockop DJ, Spees JL. Non-hematopoietic bone marrow stem cells molecular control of expansion and differentiation. Exp Cell Res. 2005 Stem cell therapy includes cancer. A leukocyte is a type of cancer that is found in the white blood cells or similar other blood cells (3). It starts in the bone marrow, which is responsible to deliver rise to red blood cells that convey oxygen through the body and white blood cells that match infection.
Leukemia results when leukocytes starts to develop and function strangely, becoming cancerous. When chemotherapy, radiation, or both together can’t eradicate leukemia (3), all of which was used mostly by the ablative and reduced intensity treatment in the past, doctors turned to the use of stem cell transplants. The intention of selecting such a disease is because of its triumph of the first success story in the 1968 to which doctor’s performed the first bone marrow transplant.
Figure 2. Causes, Abnormal proliferation and blood. Carrier, Ewa, and Gracy Ledingham. 00 Questions & Answers about Bone Marrow and Stem Cell Transplantation. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2004. The two classes of transplants to treat leukemia are in an autologous and allogeneic manner (4). Starting of with autologous cell transplants. The first type is called a “rescue transplant. ” In this kind of transplant, your own stems cells are harvested from the bone marrow or the blood earlier from getting the cancer treatment that destroys them and is to be frozen by certain processes such as purging. Then, the patient is put on high doses of chemotherapy or radiation treatment.
Thus, the stem cells are defrosted and are rein-fused to the patient to make regular blood cells. Sometimes, two autologous transplants following each other are used. This is known as tandem transplants. In this kind of transplant, the patient acquires two sequences of high-dose chemotherapy, each followed by a transplant of their individual stem cells. The entire of the stem cells wanted are gathered. This is done before the first high-dose chemo treatment, and exactly half of them are used for each transplant (4. ) (3) Humber, James M. Almeder.
Stem Cell Research. Totowa, NJ: Humana, 2004. (4) Fox, Cynthia. Cell of Cells: The Global Race to Capture and Control the Stem Cell. New York: W. W. Norton, 2007. In the greatest common kind of allogeneic transplant, the procedure is called “engraftment. ” Stem cells originate from a healthy donor whose tissue type thoroughly matches the patient’s, as the closer a tissue match is between the donor and recipient, the healthier the transplanted cells will take and instigate making new blood cells and getting rid of anomalous leukocytes (4. This is referred to as “HLA matching”. For instance, a close family member. For this to happen all of the patient’s present bone marrow and anomalous leukocytes are first exterminated using a grouping of chemotherapy and high dose radiation. Then with the use of stem cells, a sample of one marrow having healthy stem cells is presented into the patient’s bloodstream to substitute those that were destroyed, much like a blood transfusion. Over period they inhabit in the bone marrow and arise to grow and make healthful blood cells.
If the patient is unable to have a suitable match in their family, a donor may be found in the general public through a national registry (4) this is referred to as a” MUD. ” Another way is the “umbilical cord blood. ” This is the latest source of stem cells for allogeneic transplants. For this kind of transplant, blood is occupied from the umbilical cord and placenta of babies, which is frozen and stored. This small capacity of blood has a great number of stem cells that manage to multiply quickly (5. ) Figure 3.
Difference between allogeneic and autologous. Friedman, Lauri S. , and Hal Marcovitz. Is Stem Cell Research Necessary? Referencepoint Press, 2009. These two types have many benefits to the obvious. However, they do also have their limitations whom are much more risky than the short side effect such as low blood cell counts nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, mouth sores, and hair loss (5) who can be easily resolved with antibiotics. It is vital to look at both in order to conclude if one should use a transplant or not. 4) Capps, Benjamin J. and Alastair V. Campbell, eds. Contested Cells: Global Perspectives on the Stem Cell Debate. London: Imperial College Press, 2010. (5) Shostak, Stanley. Becoming Immortal: Stem-cell Therapy. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2002. Starting of with the autologous stem cell transplant. One benefit is that you give your own stem cells so you don’t have to fear about the graft attacking your body (3), the graft-versus-host disease. Receiving a new contagion from another being is not a concern.
A limitation of the autologous transplant is that cancer cells might be selected up along among the stem cells and then put in return into your body in advance. Aldo, immune system is still similar as before when your stem cells engraft. Meaning cancerous cells are able to mature despite your immune cells previously. For the allogeneic cell transplant, benefits are that the donor stem cells brand their personal immune cells. This might support end any cancerous cells that remain after highdose treatment (5. Added benefits are that the donor can frequently be requested to donate more stem cells or even white blood cells if wanted, which as I have clarified before stem cells from healthy donors are free of cancer cells. Limitations to this transplant are that the donor cells could perish by the patient’s body before inhabiting in the bone marrow. Another risk is the graft versus host disease, of being that from the donor the immune cells might attack strong cells in the patient’s body. Figure 4. GVHD Gillis, Marin. Ethics, Stem Cells, and Women: A Feminist Perspective. Saarbrucken, Germany: LAP Lambert.
Academic Publishing, 2009. Discussing and evaluating the implications of the technology and application of science interacting with ethics is really important in order to come to the right conclusion regarding stem cell transplants in an appropriate manner. The goals of transplant ethics are to promote the honesty of transplants, and the healthy being of alive donors and organ receivers because organs are extraordinary and a valuable gift. Transplant ethics aims for the capacity to benefit from it (6). Thus coming to two points, the duty to stop or lessen suffering and the duty to respect the value of human existence.
Ethical stem cell transplants suggest that an allogeneic stem cell transplant is preferred over an autologous one (6), because leukemia is a illness of the blood and bone marrow, so providing the patient with his or her own cells back means giving them back some leukemia cells. (3) Humber, James M. Almeder. Stem Cell Research. Totowa, NJ: Humana, 2004. (6) Panno, Joseph. Stem Cell Research: Medical Applications and Ethical Controversy. New York: Checkmark, 2006. Thave also concluded that the umbilical cord blood method that Thave mentioned previously in the allogeneic methods is the most appropriate method of allogeneic and all.
Figure 5. Umbilical cord blood method. Cohen, Cynthia B. Renewing the Stuff of Life: Stem Cells, Ethics, and Public Policy. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007. All in all, this method makes a less disturbing treatment option than the others. This method is fewer disposed to rejection than any bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cells because the cells have not yet settled the features that can be recognized and attacked by the recipient’s immune system which meets the ethical eye. Citation: • Capps, Benjamin J. and Alastair V. Campbell, eds.
Contested Cells: Global Perspectives on the Stem Cell Debate. London: Imperial College Press, 2010. • Carrier, Ewa, and Gracy Ledingham. 100 Questions & Answers about Bone Marrow and Stem Cell Transplantation. Sudbury, MA:Jones and Bartlett, 2004. • Committee on Guidelines for Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research. Washington, D. C. : National Academies Press, 2005 • Fox, Cynthia. Cell of Cells: The Global Race to Capture and Control the Stem Cell. New York: W. W. Norton, 2007.
• Friedman, Lauri S. , and Hal Marcovitz. Is Stem Cell Research Necessary? Referencepoint Press, 2009. Gillis, Marin. Ethics, Stem Cells, and Women: A Feminist Perspective. Saarbrucken, Germany: LAP Lambert. Academic Publishing, 2009. • Gregory CA, Prockop DJ, Spees JL. Non-hematopoietic bone marrow stem cells molecular control of expansion and differentiation. Exp Cell Res. 2005 • Humber, James M. Almeder. Stem Cell Research. Totowa, NJ: Humana, 2004. • Panno, Joseph. Stem Cell Research: Medical Applications and Ethical Controversy. New York: Checkmark, 2006. • Shostak, Stanley. Becoming Immortal: Stem-cell Therapy. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2002.