The attention of this paper is to underline the process of implementing a policy. The policymaking process consists of the Policy Formulation phase, there are two parts to the Policy Formulation Phase; Agenda setting with the breakdown of Problems. Possible Solutions, and Political Circumstances and the second part of Policy Formulation is Legislation development. After the Legislation Development the Bill goes to the Policy Implementation Phase, at this stage the policymaking process transfers from the legislative branch towards the executive branch.
Keywords: Policy, Policy Formulation Phase, Policy Implementation Phase, Agenda Setting The Process in Creating and Implementing Policy Policy is a way of illustrating a decision, planning, and or an action taken to achieve a certain purpose to guide a society. According to Longest (2010,5), he defines policy as a ” authoritative decisions made in the legislative, executive, or judicial branches of government that are intended to direct or influence the actions, behaviors, or decisions of others. In developing a policy, certain steps need to be taken in act to implement the policy.
According to Policy Making: Political Interactions (2015), the crucial steps in implementing a policy are: “Agenda Setting, Formulating the Policy, and finally Implementing the Policy. ” The policymaking process starts off with the Policy Formulation Phase which consists of the critical first step in policymaking, which is Agenda setting; this process describes the steps by which particular problems, possible solutions and political circumstances emerge (Longest 2010, 67).
As a society initiates a problem, there should be a possible solution or alternative solutions to move the processes into Political Circumstances. The final step of Agenda setting is Political Circumstances, at this point a problem consists of a possible solution and a political circumstance; wherein a window of opportunity opens up to move forward in the development of legislation (Longest 2010, 59). While the implemented policy is being developed into legislation, it is considered as the Formulation Phase of policymaking.
The Policy Formulation Phase is defined according to Hayes, (2010) as “the development of effective and acceptable courses of action for addressing what has been placed on the policy agenda. ” In this procedure according to Longest (2010,83) the policy goes through a choreographic process of Legislative Development; it is introduced in the House of Representative or the Senate by a member. The Bill then escalades through the House and the Senate for questioning and consideration.
If the Bill is passed in both the House and the Senate with identical agreements, the Bill can be sent to a conference. Than the identical Bill is passed on behalf of both House and Senate, the Bill is introduced to the President, who can sign the Bill into law, if not signed within 10 days the Bill becomes a law automatically. In other cases, if the Congress is not in session the Bill cannot become a law without Presidential signature (Longest 2010, 84).
The President also has the choice to Veto the Bill, but if two-thirds of the House and Senate vote against, they can override the Veto (Teitelbaum &Wilensky, 2007). The final stage of policymaking is known as the Implementation Phase, in this stage the responsibility for policymaking transfers from the legislative branch towards the executive branch at which the Bill can be made into law by the executive officer. At this point the rulemaking process begins in the Implementation Phase and goes towards the Operation of public laws.
After a policy has been implemented the Bill can be evaluated, this process occurs during the life of the policy due to individuals, organizations, or interest groups who benefit or due not and seek to adjust the Bill for their advantages (Longest 2010). Evaluation By understanding the chronological process of implementing a policy, one can determine in my perspective that the process evaluates in an appropriate order. As we look at the Policy Formulation Phase of Agenda Setting, the beginning strategy is finding a problem; I agree that a problem is what starts the policy.
While developing legislation an alignment of problem, possible solutions, and political circumstances is needed; this generates a great view of balance to a problem that can be focused and developed on. While the Bill goes through a legislation development, I believe that a more questionable reading and debate of the Bill is needed like it is done in the legislative process in the State; therefore later on it won’t go through a constant evaluation phase. Overall, the process defines a reasonable approach to policy making in my understanding that provides great deal of measures and guidance to form a Bill.
Conclusion The fundamentals of policymaking consist of a lengthy time process that goes through many steps in becoming a Bill. The process of policymaking is introduced in the beginning steps of the Policy Formulation Phase, as the problem goes through a Legislation it goes into the Policy Implementation Phase, which then forms into a law or vetoed. Many policies do not become Law’s, but the certain ones that do, they achieve the goal to guide the society with immense decision making and balanced outcomes.