Is Earth’s atmosphere heated from above or below? Explain. The earth’s atmosphere is heated from below. Initially, the energy of the sun passes through the earth’s atmosphere and radiates heat onto the land and water surfaces, which then radiates heat into the atmosphere. This effect is also known as the greenhouse effect.
6. Describe the Coriolis Effect in the northern and southern hemispheres and include a discussion of why the effect increases with increased latitude.
The Coriolis Effect in the northern hemisphere cause all the moving objects to follow a curved path to the right of its anticipated direction. The Coriolis Effect in the southern hemisphere cause all the moving objects to follow a curved path to the left of its anticipated direction. These effects increase with increased latitude because the rate of change of the rotational velocity increases. There is more of a rotational speed increase closer to the poles while there is the least change close to the equator.
7. Sketch the pattern of surface wind belts on Earth, showing atmospheric circulation cells, zones of high and low pressure, the names of the wind belts, and the names of the boundaries between wind belts. (I DO NOT REQUIRE A PHYSICAL SKETCH. INSTEAD, SKETCH WITH WORDS. IN OTHER WORDS, DESCRIBE.)
In the global hemisphere, there are atmospheric circulation cells which are composed of three different types. Starting with the Hadley circulation cells, they are located around the 30 north and south latitude. Next, there are the Ferrel Cells which are located between the 30 and 60 latitude. Lastly, there are polar cells located between the 60 and 90 latitude. In the atmospheric circulation and wind belts of the world, there are different pressure zones. The pressure zone in which descending air is at about 30 north and south latitude create high-pressure ones called the subtropical highs. Then there are high-pressure zones with descending air at the poles called polar highs. When there is a band of rising air at low pressure at the equator it is called the equatorial low. Then the band of rising air at about 60 north and south latitude.
There are a total of 3 different wind belts: Trade winds, prevailing westerlies, and polar easterlies. First, there are the trade winds which are composed of two: the NE trade winds and SE trade winds. They are located in between the 5- 30. They are the strong and steady winds, generally from the east. Secondly, there are the prevailing westerlies which are located in between the 30 – 60. The winds are generally from the west and bring the storms which effect the weather across the US. Lastly, there are the polar easterlies which are located in between the 60 – 90. They are the cold and dry winds that generally come from the east. The wind belts are separated by 4 different types of boundaries: Doldrums, Horse latitude, Polar front, and Polar high pressure.
First, there is the doldrums located in the equatorial with a low atmospheric pressure. There are light winds, variable winds, abundant cloudiness, and much precipitation. They are also breeding grounds for hurricanes. Secondly, there are the Horse latitudes located at 30 with high atmospheric pressure. There are light and variable winds. Fair weather with little precipitation and goes across the major deserts of the world. Next, there are the Polar fronts located at the 60 with low atmospheric pressure. There are variable winds that cause stormy and cloudy weather all year round. Lastly, there are the Polar high pressure boundary located at the poles with high atmospheric pressure. There are variable winds with cold temperatures, cold deserts, and very low precipitation.
10. How do sea breezes and land breezes form? During a hot summer day, which one would be most common and why?
Sea breezes form when warm air by the land rises and is replaced by the cool air from the ocean. Land breezes form when the land has cooled causing the dense air to sink and flow towards the warmer ocean. During a hot summer day, the most common would be a sea breeze because the land heats up and starts rising causing it to be replaced by the cool air that the ocean releases. So the sea breeze would cause cooler weather for the hot summer day.
14. How are the oceans climatic regions (Fig. 6.24) related to the broad patterns of air circulation described in Fig. 6.12? What are some areas where the two are not closely related?
The ocean’s climate regions are related to the broad patterns of air circulation because they both contain an atmospheric pattern which are divided into regions and boundaries. There climate regions and boundaries that are mainly based of the latitude regions and are modified by the wind belts. The area in which the two are not closely related is that the climate regions depends on temperature while in the atmospheric circulation depends in the winds.
Chapter 7: 9. Explain why Gulf Stream eddies that develop northeast of the Gulf Stream rotate clockwise and have warm water cores, whereas those that develop to the southwest rotate counterclockwise and have cold water cores.
The Gulf Stream eddies that develop northeast of the Gulf Stream rotate clockwise and have warm water cores whereas those that develop to the southwest rotate counterclockwise and have cold water cores because eddies are formed and maintained by pinched-off menders.
11. Describe changes in atmospheric and oceanographic phenomena that occur during El Niño/La Niña events, including changes in atmospheric pressure; winds; Walker circulation; weather; equatorial surface currents; coastal upwelling/down welling and the abundance of marine life; sea surface temperature and the Pacific warm pool; sea surface elevation; and position of the thermocline.
El Niño includes high pressure along the coast of South America weakens, reducing the changes in the high and low pressures regions in the Walker Circulation. The trade winds blow in the reverse direction. El Niño can influence worldwide weather patterns. Sometimes the weather is drier or wetter than others. El Niño can result in events such as flooding, erosion, droughts, fires, tropical storms, and effects on the marine life. As the warm water at sea increases sea surface temperature across the equatorial pacific, temperature sensitive corals are decimated. Once the warm waters reach South America, it increases the average sea level and the number of tropical hurricanes formed.
The warm water flow causes the sloped thermocline boundary between warm water surface and the cooler water below to flatten it out. The upwelling brings warmer water to the surface. La Niña has a larger pressure difference from El Niño which creates a stronger Walker Circulation and stronger trade winds. This can lead to more of an upwelling and a shallower thermocline in the eastern Pacific Ocean. This also creates water with cooler temperature that stretches across the equatorial. La Niña events are related to many sea surface temperature and weather phenomena different from those of El Niño.
14. Describe the global effects of severe El Niños.
Some of the global effects include and result in events such as flooding, erosion, droughts, fires, tropical storms, and effects on the marine life. For example in the 1982-1983 El Niño over half of the Galapagos Island’s fur seals and sea lions died of starvation.