All-In-1: Macronutrients

All-in-1 is a company that have been selling macronutrient products for the past 6 years, and recently they’ve been getting accused of that they have not included the important macronutrients in one of their products; the meal replacement drink. The nutra-chek company, takes samples of food products into their labs to test for macronutrients in the samples. The purpose of this lab is to test for four macronutrients: Monosaccharides, starches, proteins and fats. The results of this lab will determine if the meal replacement drink does include the important macronutrients.

Background Information All-In-1 have been claiming that their meal replacement drink includes all of the macronutrients, however, their customers seem to differ. Many complaints have been received from Health Canada from people stating that they think that All-in-1 has not included important macronutrients in their meal replacement drink. Macronutrients are nutrients that provide carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids. Nutrients are substances needed for growth, metabolism, and for other body functions.

Carbohydrates are an organic compound that consists of only carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Carbohydrates are used in the body for energy and to help keep everything going, also the body can store carbohydrate in the liver and muscles for when it is needed (stored as glycogen). Carbohydrates are important because it is the body’s main source of fuel, it is needed for the central nervous system, the kidneys, the brain, the muscles (including the heart) to function properly, and it is important in intestinal health and waste elimination.

A lack of carbohydrates can deprive energy that the kidneys, brain and heart the energy need in order to function. Also, the body may experience constipation, hemorrhoids and an increased risk of certain cancers and heart disease because of the lack of fibre that would come from carbohydrates. Proteins are part of every cell, tissue, and organ in our bodies. These body proteins are constantly being broken down and replaced. The protein in the foods we eat is digested into amino acids that are later used to replace these proteins in our bodies.

There are twenty different amino acids that join together to make all types of protein. Our bodies cannot make some of these amino acids so these are known as essential amino acids – it is essential that our diet provide these. Protein is important because it is needed for growth, tissue repair, immune function, making essential hormones and enzymes, energy when carbohydrate is not available and for preserving lean muscle mass. Although protein deficiency is rare in the United States and Canada, but it can still cause decreased muscle mass, diarrhea, failure to thrive, diminished immunity, a protruding belly and fatigue.

Lipids (common term; fats) is important because it is needed for normal growth development, energy (fat is the most concentrated source of energy), absorbing certain vitamins, providing cushioning for the organs, and for maintaining cell membranes. If a person is not consuming enough lipids, they might experience dry skin, hair and they will be hungry more often. Also, if they are not getting enough of ‘healthy fats’, they may put themselves in a higher risk for coronary artery disease. In this lab, the Nutra-Chek company will test for the four macronutrients: Monosaccharides, starches, proteins and fats in the All-In-1 meal replacement drink.

Hypothesis Considering All-In-1 Replacement Drinks claim that they contain all macronutrients then the results should show that there is the presence of proteins, lipids, monosaccharides, and starches in the samples.

Materials 1 Spot Plate 1 Eye Dropper 1 Hot Plate 1 Test Tube 1 Beaker Water (to boil) Indicators 1 sheet of Paper Towel A bottle of Benedict A bottle of Lugol (Iodine) A bottle of Sudan IV A bottle of Biuret

Method Heat hot plate at around 40℃ to 50℃ Fill the beaker with 500mL of water then place the beaker on the hot plate With the eye dropper, place a drop of the All-In-1 meal replacement drink sample in the twelve containments in the spot plate Rip three small pieces of paper towel and place them in three containments on the spot plate (for trial and error) and allow the paper towel to absorb the samples Put a drop of Lugol in three containments Repeat step 5 with other indicators (Biuret and Sudan IV) Put a drop of the All-In-1 meal replacement drink in a test tube Put a drop of benedict into the same test tube Put the test tube into the beaker to heat up mixture Take out the test tube after a while to check for a reaction Observe all of the samples for any changes and record results

Results Legend N/R = Negative Reaction P/R = Positive Reaction After three trials, the results of this lab have been observed and recorded in a chart. Since the chart shows that there were positive reactions with the benedict, lugol, sudan IV, and paper, it can be concluded that there is a presence of monosaccharide, starch, and lipid in the drink. However, the drink is missing the presence of protein since there was a negative reaction to biuret. Therefore, the results contradict with what the All-In-1 meal replacement drink has been claiming to contain.

Discussion The results that were received at the lab are contradicting with what the All-In-1 meal replacement drink has been claiming to contain. All-In-1 has been claiming to contain all of the macronutrients in one meal replacement drink, meaning that they have been falsely advertising their product considering that the product is missing protein. Knowing that All-In-1 is missing protein, which is an important macronutrient, the costumers of this product are at risk of health problems if they have been depending on the product as a source of protein. Protein very important for proper nutrition because it helps with body functioning and the building of things like muscles, skin, hair and much more. Lack of protein for a few weeks causes fatigue, irritability and lethargy.

However, if the lack of protein continues for a long term of time, the following symptoms can occur: edema, muscle cramping, weight loss, thinning of hair, deterioration of the muscles, skin rashes, general weakness, slow healing, difficult sleeping, fainting, and severe depression. This would explain why the customers of All-In-1 have been having a few of these symptoms. Also, low intake of protein for a long while can cause diseases like liver, kidney or celiac disease. This is especially a bigger issue for costumers that are athletes or for customers that are over the age of 70 because it is essential that they are consuming the right amount of protein everyday.

Conclusion In conclusion, the hypothesis was incorrect. All-In-1 meal replacement drink do not contain all of the macronutrients since it is missing protein. This was proven by the fact that there was a negative reaction to biuret, if there was a positive reaction, the All-In-1 meal replacement and biuret mixture would have turned from blue to a purple colour. Therefore, the company has been falsely advertising their product, leaving their customers (especially long term users) at health risks.

Nutra-Chek recommends the following: Recall on the products If product stays running, the product should be recalled and replaced with a new formula that includes ALL of the macronutrients The All-In-1 company should provide extra attention towards the long term users of this product, such as paying for any treatments the costumers need from protein deficiency All costumers should be notified that if they are experiencing any of the symptoms that were listed before, they should make an appointment to see their primary doctor. Simple blood tests will determine if they are affected by protein deficiency. If they are affected by protein deficiency, the All-In-1 company should pay for any treatments that will be needed