Yet other argues that inclusion for all pupils within education is important for many factors. Our experience within the education system is very important for many reasons, it can shape friendships, our self-esteem, our academic achievements as well as integrating each one of us into society as valued citizens however not all pupils have the same experience within the education system. As Farrell (2010, pp. 107) explaining that a pupil who is labelled as having a “special education need” automatically boxes that individual into a category and leaves that pupil with a disability oppressed.
In regards to being labelled as having a disability McBrayer and Lian (2002, pp. 4), labelling identifies individuals or groups according to a category assigned to them. Labelling a person with a category of disabilities may negatively affect the perception of this individual’s ability. In turn Samkange (2015, pp. 1420), Crossman (2014) argues that negative labels contribute to low self-esteem, lack of confidence or rejection.
The centre for studies in inclusive education 2003 “the discrimination inherent in segregated schooling offend the human dignity of the child and is capable of undermining or evening destroying the capacity of the children to benefit from action opportunities”. Moreover they bring to light that “Segregated schooling perpetuates discrimination, devaluation, stigmatisation, stereotyping, prejudice and isolation”. Farrell (2010, pp. 79) elaborates that special schools can offend child’s human dignity, as well as destroys a child capacity to benefit from educational opportunities.
Moreover, Dunn (1968) brings to light that indeed, labels associated with segregations is a problem faced by many student yet there are such as poor self-esteem, academic achievement etc. It has been established that exclusion from mainstream education can lead to a multitude of problem; segregation can have a deep and upsetting affect of young pupils. In regards to self-esteem, Harter et al, 1998; Crabtree & Rutland, 2001 explains that children with SEN tend to have more of a negative social self-concept than their peers.
Jenkinson, (1997, pp. 55), many educators have brought to light that there are many positives attached to the placement of children in an ordinary education setting such as better self-supportive adults in the future. Similarly, Lamport et al (2009, pp. 55), explains that effect of inclusion can lead to positive academic achievement as well as social interaction for students with disabilities and in turn leading to a pupil glowing with high self-esteem with any parent and teacher wants to see. Furthermore not only does inclusion improve of pupils self esteem but their experience within the education system benefiting in many ways.
Wang (2009) explains that “inclusion for children with a disability has the overall aim to improve that children learning outcome enhancing their social skills, academic achievement and personal development”. In regards to other pupils Westwood and Graham (2003), bring to light that not only do pupils with a disability benefit from the experience of inclusion within mainstream school but other pupils are gain the opportunity to learn and develop appropriate attitudes towards people with a range of disabilities.
Moreover they bring forward that “exposure to students of all types on a daily basis allows typical students to see that, just like themselves, students with disabilities have strengths and weakness, and good days and bad days. Carroll et al (2003), highlights that if we want to change individuals attitudes with regards to disability information about that particular disability as well as experience and learning with people with a disability is essential.
Armstrong and Squire (2012) brings forward that the definitions of inclusion always ensures that the placement of children with SEN within mainstream schooling is paramount within schools and government policy documents, however indeed the definitions provided do not express the importance of quality the education system offered to pupils. Furthermore, Armstrong and Squire (2012, pp. 37), examines “are pupils placed in units attached to a mainstream school, more “included” than if they were taught in a special school? ” Jupp (1992, pp. 7), argued that such units can be just as segregating”.
In research undertaken by Macbeath et al. (2006), highlighted that with regards to teachers Macbeath et al found that there was a generally a positive regard among teachers for inclusion, with recognition of the benefits for all pupils, however teachers did highlight there concern about whether mainstream schools were able to provide a suitable education for children with complex emotional needs. Teachers also questioned whether alternative, special provision might better serve children with complex special needs.
Inclusion is an important aspect of education and over the years has been highlighted in many government documents as a human right yet Farrell (2010, pp. 106) highlights that he idea that inclusion should be a primary aim of schools is not easy to maintain. Rather too many people think that schools ought to be about education. Parents tend to send their children to school to be educated not primarily to be included. The prospect of leaving school, having learned little and developed less but being able to claim to have been included does not appeal to many parents or pupils”.
Farrell (2006a, pp. 106) “education is a schools primary purpose, not inclusion”. Moreover, another problem with inclusion within mainstream education was highlighted by Harrower (1999), who stated that “Pupils placed in a regular mainstream class may be isolated from the rest of the class and not truly “integrated” within the group, if they work with a support worker or teaching assistant in one to one sessions for the majority of each day, inclusive placement can yet leave pupils “segregated”.
Warnock et al (2010, pp. 5), Children the largest among the SEN who for emotional, behavioural or more strictly cognitive reasons are genuinely unable to learn in a regular classroom and who distract other children from learning in a regular classroom, and who distract other children from learning if they are placed there. This concept of inclusion is often stretched so that they are deemed to be included even if they attend classes in a special unit on the campus of the main school; however life on the school bus or in the school grounds may still be traumatic for them”.
Inclusion classrooms might not always be the best option, Armstrong and Squires (2012, pp. 30), “Humphrey (2002), looked at pupils with dyslexia and explains that’s special units with knowledgeable teachers who understood their difficulties had higher self-esteem than dyslexic children in mainstream classes who still felt their academic performance was viewed negatively by some of their teachers and peers. The dyslexic children in mainstream school generally had markedly lower self-esteem than their non-dyslexic classmates”. Farrell (2010, pp. 2), “Pupils attending special school often speak very positivity as a government report in England shows.
One pupil had commented that “when I moved to the special school I could really do my work; everything was presented in a way I understood”. (DfES 2003, pp. 82) Pupils who had moved from mainstream school to special school had many positive comments about the social school. They were friendlier they said that they school “doesn’t get wounded up about the way I behaved” or pupils also reported that they had more friends.