Essay On Planarian Regeneration

This project is beneficial because regeneration is a big topic right now and regeneration in biology is the process of renewal, restoration, and growth that makes genomes, cells , organisms, and ecosystems resilient to natural fluctuations or events that cause disturbances or damage. So regeneration is only applicable to some animals but in the future it could grow to other animals and maybe in the far future humans with the proper research and experimentation. y data will allow scientist to know how a change in temperature can affect regeneration and that can have positive implications on the study of regeneration planarians stem cell like cells are distributed throughout their bodies in great amounts, which helps lend them their regenerative qualities.

Planarians reproduce A-sexually so they can basically clone themselves, Because they reproduce Asexually planaria and their genomes can be created over and over again. Planarians are tiny flatworms that live in freshwater and marine environments and on plants all over the world. he cells that are in planaria are ready to transform into whatever tissue the planarian needs to regenerate their simple bodies and few tissues make planarians easy to study.

A single planarian can be cut into hundreds of pieces and still regenerate into a hundred whole planarians no matter what way u cut them. planarians are cross eyed creatures. researchers discovered that planarian regeneration depends on the activity of stem cells (neoblasts ) distributed throughout the flatworms body. team of scientist at the stowers institute for medical research has brought us closer to answering these questions by developing a new technique to study planarian regeneration and using it to discover some of the genes involved. planarian regeneration involves the generation of new tissue at the wound site. We identify the types of structures produced by blastemas on a variety of wound surfaces, the principles guiding the reorganization of pre-existing tissues, and the manner in which scale and cell number proportions between body regions are restored during regeneration

The regenerative process is mediated by the formation and eventual differentiation of a specialized structure known as the regeneration blastema. Planarians possess remarkable regenerative abilities enabling them to replace parts of the body removed by amputation or naturally occurring fission. Introduction In metazoans, regeneration of lost body parts requiring the formation of a blastema is known as epimorphic regeneration. It was this body of work that led Thomas Hunt Morgan and Charles Manning Child to study planarian regeneration in the late 1890s and early 1900s.

It is interesting to note, however, that even after more than 200 years of studies, most of the biological questions raised by planarian regeneration still remain unanswered. A blastema is composed primarily of two cell populations: an outer cell layer or ectoderm, derived from the epidermis that covers the wound surface after amputation/fission; and mesenchymal cells that proliferate and accumulate beneath this wound epidermis, eventually differentiating into the lost body parts (Figure 1).

In his work, Duge’s laid the foundations of modern planarian systematics. Second, the mesenchymal cells are derived from pre-existing undifferentiated cells (neoblasts), instead of the cellular dedifferentation observed in vertebrates. In 1766, Peter Simon Pallas first described how a small piece dissected from a planarian head was capable of regenerating a complete organism (see Brondsted, 1969). Brief Historical Note The regenerative abilities of planarians have been known for over 230 years.

Currently, the involvement of experts from outside of molecular genetics is hampered by the specialist literature of molecular developmental biology: impactful collaborations across such different fields require that review literature be available that presents the key functional capabilities of important biological model systems while abstracting away from the often irrelevant and confusing details of specific genes and proteins.

By establishing an engineering-like style for reviews of the molecular developmental biology of biomedically important model systems, significant fresh insights and quantitativ computational models will be developed by new collaborations between biology and the information sciences. Land planarians thrive in high temperature and humidity, thus they are widely distributed in tropical and subtropical areas. In the U. S. , they have been detected in natural habitats in Florida, Louisiana, and most recently in Georgia, Texas, North and South Carolina and southern California.

They have been reported in greenhouses in Alabama, California, Georgia, Illinois, Kentucky, Massachusetts, Mississippi, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, South Carolina, and Tennessee. Land planarians had not been previously detected in mountain or desert areas. However, in October 2003, a sample of land planarians was brought to the Cochise County, Arizona, Cooperative Extension Service office for identification. In May 2005, they were reported from Nashua, New Hampshire (McClarin 2005), and Hawaii (Fleck 2005).

In April 2006 and March 2008, specimens were reported from Novato and Richmond in California’s San Francisco Bay area (Guinard 2006, Campbell 2008). The widespread occurrence of land planarians is a result of horticultural practices and dispersion of potted plants in commerce. In tropical and subtropical areas, once planarians are established in a greenhouse they disperse to the adjacent environment. The most common species studied in the lab is the brown planaria, Dugesia. Most are scavengers and will eat other animals that have sank to the bottom of their ponds, hence why ou can use liver to capture them.

The Dugesia does have a simple nervous system that includes a ganglia located in its anterior region to serve as a brain. As such, the dugesia exhibits the trait of cephalization, where the majority of its sense organs are located in the anterior region. The presence of the two eyes and lateral horns on the head indicate that the planarian has bilateral symmetry. planarian cut. The planarian will swim in a shallow petri dish by undulating its body across the surface of the dish.

If given a choice, the planarian will actively seek an area of the dish that is dark or has some kind of cover. If you shine a flashlight on the planarian, it will attempt to move out of the light. The planarian does not have gills or lungs, it obtains its oxygen by simple diffusion over its flat body. The dugesia cannot survive outside of the water, so biologists studying it must make sure that the specimen has plenty of water that is aerated. The dugesia does have an excretory system to remove wastes. Tiny cells, called flame cells, line the lateral edge of the organism and function to remove waste.

The dugesia can reproduce sexually, and all dugesia are hermaphrodites. Two dugesia will pair up and fertilize each other’s eggs. If there is not another dugesia present, one can reproduce asexually some species are marine, others are terrestrial. Some species are parasitic; Tropical species are often brightly coloured. Members of the North American genus Dugesia are black, gray, or brown. Planarians swim with an undulating motion or creep like slugs. i. e. , functional reproductive organs of both sexes occur in the same individual.

The reproductive organs begin to develop in early autumn. In most species, fully developed young emerge and develop without metamorphosis (i. e. , radical change), but free-living, ciliated larvae are released in a few marine species. In some species, the organism in the cocoon divides into two parts, each of which develops into a complete individual. New individuals, called buds, form at the tail end of others in the genus Microstomum and may remain attached to the parent for some time; chains formed of three or four buds sometimes occur.

Because of their remarkable rate lost parts, planarians are often used experimentally to study the process of regeneration. In summary these articles helped me verify that the planarians are flatworms that regenerate where ever you cut them. through a process called transverse fission. The organism will pull itself in half and the tail portion will regenerate a new head, and the head portion will regenerate a new tail. This process can be replicated in the lab by using a razor blade or scalpel to cut the dugesia in half. In a couple of weeks, you should have two dugesia swimming around in your petri dish.