Bacon’s Rebellion occurred in 1675 in Virginia. Nathaniel Bacon, a wealthy planter, headed the rebellion against the governor William Berkley and his corrupted regime. As death rates were falling, more people required land. Most lands were already occupied and any free land was hard to cultivate and grow tobacco. High taxes and falling prices on tobacco, due to the overproduction, limited possibilities for small farmers. Indentured servants were requiring Indians to be removed, in order to acquire more land.
Berkeley has opposed it because Berkeley was profiting from the trade with Indians and was scared of the war. The rebellion began with a small series of Indian massacres, but shortly after, it turned into big a rebellion. Bacon was promising to lower taxes, remove the Indians and depose the «grandees» (ruling elite ). Most of Bacon’s supporters were small farmers, indentured servants, and Africans. For everybody who would join his rebellion, he assured freedom. Bacon was able to burn the Jamestown to the ground and become the new ruler of Virginia colony.
The consequences of the rebellion: The ruling whites were trying to adopt a more democratic policy towards poor neighbors in order to improve their image. They reduced the taxes and started to open more areas for small farmers, by suppressing Indians. Bacon’s rebellion was one of the reasons Virginia authorities switched to slaves as a major labor force. Columbia exchange was a transatlantic flow of goods and people that occurred in the 16th century between the Old Word (Europe) and the New World (Americas).
A variety of plants and species were evolving individual for millions of years, but with the European invasion of America, those plants, cultures, and animals were mixed in together. Some of the goods that were introduced from Europe to America include wheat, rice, domesticated animals, like a horse, pig, and cattle. And on the other side Europeans brought from America tobacco, cotton, potatoes, tomatoes and most importantly corn. Although, Columbia exchange also had a negative impact on American population at that time. Europeans brought a lot of diseases to America.
Contrary to Europeans, native population did not have antibodies to fight diseases, like smallpox, influenza, and measles. The result of it was the death of nearly 80 million people. It was about one-fifth of all the Worlds population. This played as an advantage to European, who desired to occupy the Americas. Ann Hutchinson Ann Hutchinson was a midwife. who arrived in Massachusetts in 1634. Ann Hutchinson was famous for having a different interpretation of the Bible, comparing to puritans. She hosted the meeting at her house and spread this idea around man and women.
She believed that «salvation’s was God’s direct gift and can not be earned… ». Most puritans agreed with this statements. The difference between Hutchinson’s beliefs in puritans was that Ann Hutchinson disagreed that church distinguishes «saints» on the merits like church attendance, decent behavior and etc. She was also convinced that God can speak with her directly. This statement the whole foundation of the church. Ministers and magistrates found her religious beliefs contagious to the society and dangerous to the authority. In 1637 she was placed on trial.
Later on, she and some of her followers were banished from Massachusetts. She was forced to move to New York. Many years after, Massachusetts and another state will start becoming more tolerant to other religions views, but Ann Hutchinson was one of the first people who fought her right to practice their religious beliefs. Navigation Acts were enacted in 1651 by English Parliament. The main purpose of those acts was to increase England’s control over trading with its colonies and the rest of the world. Navigation Acts were a part of mercantilism policy, that England adopted.
The main purpose of which was to retain all of the wealth in England empire and assure exports is exceeding the import of goods. Colonies should make a profit for the «mothercountry» by producing raw materials, that would be shipped to England, and afterward purchase manufactured goods from England. Major regulations of that acts were: Any imported goods had to arrive in England and its colonies on English ships. The most valuable products, «enumerated goods» like tobacco and sugar had to be shipped directly to England’s ports. Another way England profited from Navigation Acts were custom duties.
As a result of Navigation Acts, England increased their market share by hinder Dutch’s free trade; The American colonies were able to raise profit from selling the raw materials, as English merchants and manufacturers. The government would collect taxes. Navigation Acts forced the strengthening of the Royal Navy, that were protecting the sailing ships out in the ocean. This also triggered the shipbuilding industry back in New England Pontiac Rebellion Before the Pontiac Rebellion, France And Great Britain were involved in different conflicts.
One of the largest and well known was the Seven Years War in which England gained the victory. Indians fought on both sides for England and French, but mostly on the French side. However Indians main priority was always to gain independence. Iroquois Indians that used to have a significant level of autonomy now were threatened from British colonies. In 1763 Indians of the Ohio Valley and Great Lake revolted against the British rule. The rebellion was named after an Ottawa war leader. Although, Newling, the religious prophet from Delaware, had a lot of influence on the ideology behind the rebellion.
Indians argued the rejection of commercial ties with colonists, alcohol dependence and desired to remove British from their land. Neon was promoting Indian tribes to unite and to create the sense of Indian identity. The outcome of Pontiac’s Rebellion was the proclamation line of 1763. Indians tribes were able to seize 9 ports and major British military ports. But England strikes back and was bale to win this battle as well. Proclamation of 1763 prohibited further Britain colonial expansion west of the Appalachia mountains in order to preserve this land for Indians to avoid future upraises.
Pontiac Rebellion also forbids the sale of Indian land to private parties. Those acts were not purposed to protect Indians, but to stop the conflicts. The Pontiac Rebellion did not become a solution to the western expansion. , as people were still acquiring Indian land (like George Washington) Eventually Indian – British relationship becomes more intense. In the eighteenth century, the thirteen colonies went from disparate, individual entities to sharing a foundation of beliefs and objectives, socially, culturally and economically.
Looking at specific events and themes, explain how the colonies became connected. As American colonies started to attract more people, colonies population grew strategically. England’s mercantilist policy introduced to Americas a lot of goods, that were now available to different types of social classes. Previously luxury goods: coffee, tea and cotton clothing were now available to the middle class. Before the consumer revolution colonies were mainly agricultural, as trade expanded, colonial sites started to appear.
The exchange of manufactured goods between them colonies drew them together and turned them to be more alike as England. In the 18th century, America experienced the growth of an economy. This with a combination of a newly adopted policy of «salutary neglect» allowed colonies to become more autonomous, led to the assemblies become more powerful. Political culture in colonies was quite similar throughout the North America. For the most part, only white man, that possess property could vote. Women, blacks, and Indians generally did not have a «will of their own»e (p. 50) that would qualify them to vote.
In 1730 Great Awakening caused the emergence of different churches and at the same time broaden religious alternatives. The revivals did not originally aim to for any social or political changes. But «independent frame mind» they caused will eventually lead to rapid political changes. George Whitefield, the evangelist from England, was the one who sparked the Great awakening in colonies. He believed that it does not matter what type of religion you practice: methodists, baptist until it is Christian.
His authority united people of different religious beliefs in North America of the eighteenth century. During the eighteenth century, a new philosophical movement was introduced to America – Enlightenment. Enlightenment pushed many smart and educated Americans to take a step towards judging for a reason and take a scientifical approach to religion. Throughout the North American colonies universities started to appear: Brown, Yale and etc where people could share their ideas and made connections. One of the ideas behind Enlightenment was creating a government that would be consented by society.
John Locke, an influential English philosopher, questioned British kings legitimacy and believed if the society is not satisfied with their government, they have a right to overthrown it. The colonial press also had a huge impact on the connection between the colonies. Circulated pamphlets, newspapers that would spread political news, religious affairs all over the North America. Fighting with the French during the seven years also created strong ties between the colonies and raise patriotism. All of this prerequisites will lead for America to fight for their Independence from England.