The Spanish were attempting to remove the Native Americans from what is now known as Arizona for years before the arrival of white men in 1540. The English had been searching for fortune in North America since 1540 and would arrive at Stadacona later that same year.
Although it initially appeared as if they planned to collaborate with one another, these two groups could not coexist because of their different cultures. The US government financed expeditions to explore Western territories between 1803 and 1846 under President Thomas Jefferson. In 1830, Andrew Jackson signed the Indian Removal Act, which gave Native Americans a final chance to leave their land peacefully or face force removal by troops led by army officers.
In the late 1910s, a group of New York City-based journalists called for removal of all nonwhites from the Southern United States. When asked about his position on immigration, President Woodrow Wilson stated in 1918 that “the Indian problem is not a racial one.” The relocation was completed during 1935 to 1938. The Tennessee Indians’ capital Echota was moved to New Echota, Georgia, and then to the Indian Territory as part of this policy. In 1830, Congress established the Indian Territory as part of the Indian Removal Policy.
The Cherokee were one of the largest Native American tribes that were removed from their land. In 1838, the Cherokee people were forced to walk from their homes in Georgia to Indian Territory. This tragic event is now known as the Trail of Tears.
The Cherokee had to give up their land and their homes and were force marched to Indian Territory. Many Cherokee died along the way due to cold weather, disease, and starvation. It is estimated that over 4,000 Cherokee died during the Trail of Tears.
The Cherokee Nation’s early leaders accepted the burden for eliminating one of the greatest tribes in the Southeastern United States, which was among the first to accept European customs.
Before the Indian Removal Policy was implemented, there was a conflict between the Cherokee and the Chickasaw. Chief Dragging Canoe signed a treaty dividing his tribe in 1777, giving rise to the Chickamauga portion of the Cherokee, who were subsequently defeated by the Chickasaw.
The Cherokee fought in the American Revolutionary War on the side of the colonists. After they were defeated, the Cherokee signed a treaty with the United States in 1785. This treaty allowed them to keep their land east of the Tennessee River.
In 1830, Congress passed the Indian Removal Policy. President Andrew Jackson signed it into law. The Indian Removal Policy was created to move all Native Americans that were living east of the Mississippi River to Indian Territory, which is now present-day Oklahoma. The Cherokee did not want to leave their homes. They had adapted to European ways and created their own government, which was based on democracy.
The Chickamauga Cherokee, a branch of the Cherokee, signed a treaty to sell their lands. “Any Cherokee who suggests selling or exchanging tribal territory shall be killed,” according to tribal custom. Major Ridge later murdered Chief Doublehead. The Cherokees attempted to adapt their culture to that of the United States. They adopted our form of government as well as gave up significant portions of their territory. The Cherokees were big farmers, and they owned some slaves given by Americans.
Cherokee slaves were Cherokee that had been sold to Americans by other Cherokee. The Cherokee were a very peaceful group of people who tried to get along with the United States. In 1829, Andrew Jackson was elected president. He was a strong supporter of Indian removal. In 1830, Jackson signed the Indian Removal Act into law.
The Cherokee were forced to leave their homes and move to Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma). This journey came to be known as the “Trail of Tears.” Cherokee men, women, and children were forced to walk hundreds of miles to their new home. Many Cherokee died along the way from cold, hunger, and disease.
The Cherokee were not the only ones affected by the Indian Removal Act. The Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, and Seminole were also forced to leave their homes. Together, these groups are known as the “Five Civilized Tribes.” The Indian Removal Act was a dark time in American history. Thousands of Native Americans lost their lives. The Cherokee nation was destroyed, and its people were forever changed.
The Treaty of New Echota (1835) was the final treaty. It was signed on December 29, 1835, and is also known as the Treaty of New Echota. A group of 500 Cherokee out of about 17,000 people were involved in signing it. Between 1785 and 1902, twenty-five treaties were concluded with European invaders to surrender their tribal lands.
The Cherokee’s year of dread was about to begin. In 1838, General Winfield Scott became frustrated with the delay and took control of collecting the Cherokee, who had been kept waiting for two years already. The Cherokee were dispersed from their homes and forced into holding camps in order to prevent anybody from escaping. In the fall of 1838, the Cherokees would be relocated.
The journey was delayed by foul weather in October 1838. In the spring of 1839, they were supposed to migrate 13,000 Cherokee a total distance of eight hundred miles. The Cherokee were fed on restricted rations, which caused hunger and malnutrition. For the spring, they were poorly clothed, and many people became sick or died as a result of their poor living conditions.
Many Cherokee attempted to flee, and some were successful. The Cherokees were familiar with these woodlands and where to go. The white men couldn’t track them down without the aid of other Cherokees and payments. The majority of the Cherokee fled into the mountains, making them impossible to discover.
Cherokee who were found were often brought back and killed. The Cherokee who made it to Indian Territory often starved because they had no idea how to live off the land. There are different estimates of how many Cherokee died on the trail, but most scholars believe that around four thousand Cherokee perished.
The Cherokee were not the only ones to be removed from their homes. The Seminole, Creek, Chickasaw, and Choctaw were also forced to move west. The Seminole in particular put up a fierce resistance and it took the United States Army three years and $20 million to finally remove them. In all, it is estimated that over 60,000 Native Americans were forced to leave their homes during the time of Indian Removal.